Nowadays, sea traveling is increasing due to its practicality and low-cost. Ferry boats play a significant role in the marine tourism industry to transfer passengers and tourists. Nevertheless, traditional ferry ships consume massive amounts of fossil fuels to generate the required energy for their motors and demanded loads. Also, by consuming fossil fuels, ferries spatter the atmosphere with CO2 emissions and detrimental particles. In order to address these issues, ferry-building industries try to utilize renewable energy sources (RESs) and energy storage systems (ESSs), instead of fossil fuels, to provide the required power in the ferry boats. In general, full-electric ferry (FEF) boats are a new concept to reduce the cost of fossil fuels and air emissions. Hence, FEF can be regarded as a kind of dc stand-alone microgrid with constant power loads (CPLs). This article proposes a new structure of a FEF ship based on RESs and ESSs. In order to solve the negative impedance induced instabilities in dc power electronic based RESs, a new intelligent single input interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller based on sliding mode control is proposed for the dc-dc converters feeding CLPs. The main feature of the suggested technique is that it is mode-free and regulates the plant without requiring the knowledge of converter dynamics. Finally, we conduct a dSPACE-based real-time experiment to examine the effectiveness of the proposed energy management system for FEF vessels.
This study proposes a new application for delay-dependent stability analysis of a shipboard microgrid system. Gain and phase margin values are taken into consideration in delay dependent stability analysis. Since such systems are prone to unwanted frequency oscillations against load disturbances and randomness of renewable resources, a virtual gain and phase margin tester has been incorporated into the system to achieve the desired stabilization specification. In this way, it is considered that the system provides the desired dynamic characteristics (e.g. less oscillation, early damping, etc.) in determining the time delay margin. Firstly, the time delay margin values are obtained and their accuracy in the terms of desired gain and phase margin values are investigated. Then, the accuracy of the time delay margin values obtained by using the real data of renewable energy sources and loads in the shipboard microgrid system is shown in the study. Finally, a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation based on OPAL-RT is accomplished to affirm the applicability of the suggested method, from a systemic perspective, for the load frequency control problem in the shipboard microgrid.