Just as containerized goods appear to flow seamlessly across the planet's oceans, internationalized and standardized certificates present seafaring labor as uniform and seamless. But underneath these certificates are the intimate and unequal entanglements of local masculinity norms, age, and kinship ties that sustain the maritime labor supply chain. In this article, we follow how three young, male seafarers from eastern India find ways to contain piracy risks at work and poverty risks at home, and their sense of obligation as men, sons, husbands, and fathers. By delving into the unequal conditions for industrial male workers from the Global South, this article demonstrates how containerized maritime labor commodities are not uniform but are dependent upon economic inequality and intimate kinship ties to be productive.
This study proposes a new application for delay-dependent stability analysis of a shipboard microgrid system. Gain and phase margin values are taken into consideration in delay dependent stability analysis. Since such systems are prone to unwanted frequency oscillations against load disturbances and randomness of renewable resources, a virtual gain and phase margin tester has been incorporated into the system to achieve the desired stabilization specification. In this way, it is considered that the system provides the desired dynamic characteristics (e.g. less oscillation, early damping, etc.) in determining the time delay margin. Firstly, the time delay margin values are obtained and their accuracy in the terms of desired gain and phase margin values are investigated. Then, the accuracy of the time delay margin values obtained by using the real data of renewable energy sources and loads in the shipboard microgrid system is shown in the study. Finally, a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation based on OPAL-RT is accomplished to affirm the applicability of the suggested method, from a systemic perspective, for the load frequency control problem in the shipboard microgrid.
Increasing concerns related to fossil fuels have led to the introducing the concept of emission-free ships (EF-Ships) in marine industry. One of the well-known combinations of green energy resources in EF-Ships is the hybridization of fuel cells (FCs) with energy storage systems (ESSs) and cold-ironing (CI). Due to the high investment cost of FCs and ESSs, the aging factors of these resources should be considered in the energy management of EF-Ships. This article proposes a nonlinear model for optimal energy management of EF-Ships with hybrid FC/ESS/CI as energy resources considering the aging factors of the FCs and ESSs. Total operation costs and aging factors of FCs and ESSs are chosen as problem objectives. Moreover, a stochastic model predictive control method is adapted to the model to consider the uncertainties during the optimization horizon. The proposed model is applied to an actual case test system and the results are discussed.
This paper studies real-time deterministic prediction of wave-induced ship motions using the autocorrelation functions (ACFs) from short-time measurements, namely the instantaneous ACFs. The Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions (PSWF) are introduced to correct the large lag time errors in the instantaneous sample ACF, together with a modification of the autocorrelation (AC) matrix for ensuring its positive definiteness. The validity of the PSWF-based ACFs is first examined by using the ship motion measurements from model experiment under stationary wave excitations. It is shown that the use of PSWF-based ACFs leads to better prediction accuracy than direct use of sample ACFs. The validation is then extended to ship motion prediction using in-service data from a container ship, and an improvement of the prediction accuracy by PSWF-based ACFs is again found. Finally, the effectiveness of use of the instantaneous ACFs for non-stationary wave-induced responses is highlighted by comparing with the prediction results based on the ACFs from long-time measurements.
This paper examines the statistical properties and the quality of the speed through water (STW) measurement based on data extracted from almost 200 container ships of Maersk Line’s fleet for 3 years of operation. The analysis uses high-frequency sensor data along with additional data sources derived from external providers. The interest of the study has its background in the accuracy of STW measurement as the most important parameter in the assessment of a ship’s performance analysis. The paper contains a thorough analysis of the measurements assumed to be related with the STW error, along with a descriptive decomposition of the main variables by sea region including sea state, vessel class, vessel IMO number and manufacturer of the speed-log installed in each ship. The paper suggests a semi-empirical method using a threshold to identify potential error in a ship’s STW measurement. The study revealed that the sea region is the most influential factor for the STW accuracy and that 26% of the ships of the dataset’s fleet warrant further investigation.
This paper addresses the connection between added wave resistance and required propulsion power of ships, having focus on the early stage of new ship designs, notably tankers and bulk carriers. The paper investigates how mean added wave resistance affects the required torque of a fixed pitch propeller and thus also the operational conditions of a directly coupled main engine. The interest of the study has its background in the assessment of minimum propulsion power, and the study considers the prescriptive guidelines of the IMO as basis. Specifically, the study focuses on an assessment of the minimum forward speed attainable under consideration of the propeller light running margin and static load limits of engines in the early phase of new ship designs, where details of hull geometry are not available. The study considers three semi-empirical methods for predicting mean added wave resistance. All methods are known to be applied in the industry, emphasising that only methods relying solely on main particulars, together with information about sea state and advance speed, are of interest. The paper contains a case study used to illustrate the importance of the added wave resistance prediction with respect to the loading of the main engine. It is shown that, despite small absolute differences, the consequence in relation to the loading of the propeller and hereby the directly coupled main engine can be relatively large. Furthermore, the study illustrates that the propeller light running margin of a fixed pitch propeller directly coupled to the main engine has crucial influence on the attainable speed during adverse weather conditions.
As the emission legislation becomes further constraining, all manufacturers started to fulfill the future regulations about the prime movers in the market. Lean-burn gas engines operating under marine applications are also obligated to enhance the performance with a low emission level. Lean-burn gas engines are expressed as a cleaner source of power in steady loading than diesel engines, while in transient conditions of sea state, the unsteadiness compels the engine to respond differently than in the steady-state. This response leads to higher fuel consumption and an increase in emission formation. In order to improve the stability of the engine in transient conditions, this study presents a concept implementing a hybrid configuration in the propulsion system. An engine model is developed and validated in a range of load and speed by comparing it with the available measured data. The imposed torque into the developed engine model is smoothed out by implementing the hybrid concept, and its influence on emission reduction is discussed. It is shown that with the hybrid propulsion system, the NOX reduces up to 40% because of the maximum load reduction. Moreover, eliminating the low load operation by a Power Take In during incomplete propeller immersion, the methane slip declines significantly due to combustion efficiency enhancement.
The question of when and how international orders change remains a pertinent issue of International Relations theory. This article develops the model of pragmatic ordering to conceptualise change. The model of pragmatic ordering synthesises recent theoretical arguments for a focus on ordering advanced in-practice theory, pragmatist philosophy, and related approaches. It also integrates evidence from recent global governance research. We propose a five-stage model. According to the model, once a new problem emerges (problematisation), informality allows for experimenting with new practices and developing new knowledge (informalisation and experimentation). Once these experimental practices become codified, and survive contestation, they increasingly settle (codification) and are spread through learning and translation processes (consolidation). We draw on the rise of the maritime security agenda as a paradigmatic case and examine developments in the Western Indian Ocean region to illustrate each of these stages. The article draws attention to the substantial reorganisation of maritime space occurring over the past decade and offers an innovative approach for the study of orders and change.
Unmanned autonomous cargo ships may change the maritime industry, but there are issues regarding reliability and maintenance of machinery equipment that are yet to be solved. This article examines the applicability of the Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) method for assessing maintenance needs and reliability issues on unmanned cargo ships. The analysis shows that the RCM method is generally applicable to the examination of reliability and maintenance issues on unmanned ships, but there are also important limitations. The RCM method lacks a systematic process for evaluating the effects of preventive versus corrective maintenance measures. The method also lacks a procedure to ensure that the effect of the length of the unmanned voyage in the development of potential failures in machinery systems is included. Amendments to the RCM method are proposed to address these limitations, and the amended method is used to analyse a machinery system for two operational situations: one where the vessel is conventionally manned and one where it is unmanned. There are minor differences in the probability of failures between manned and unmanned operation, but the major challenge relating to risk and reliability of unmanned cargo ships is the severely restricted possibilities for performing corrective maintenance actions at sea.
The reduction of Greenhouses gasses (GHG) and other air emissions represents a major challenge for ports. The world over, however, ports vary considerably in their efforts to reduce air emissions, and the causes for this variation remain under-researched. This paper examines the drivers for the adoption of air emissions abatement measures in a sample of 93 of the world’s largest ports, covering all continents and mobile emitters. We test five hypotheses with a Linear Probability Model to disentangle the impacts of key port characteristics on the current adoption of abatement measures and identify three key drivers for adoption: Population density, the port landlord business model, and a specialization in servicing container shipping. We also find that ports are more likely to implement specific bundles of measures, in particular combining pricing and new energy sources. Our work has implications for ports, as we suggest that they should coordinate abatement efforts to achieve effectiveness in their work.