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Greening global value chains

Katerina Peterkova Mitkidis

Most regulatory tools for low-carbon transition are jurisdiction-specific, respecting the principle of national sovereignty. Although possibly locally successful, they typically capture only scope 1 and scope 2 emissions. Value chains-related (scope 3) emissions remain largely unregulated. This is problematic, as global value chains are commonly organized across multiple jurisdictions with different climate policy ambitions. Products are often produced at different location than where they are consumed, and production-related emissions are transferred with the products. These emissions embedded in imported products amount to large volumes (e.g. in the EU estimated to about 30% of member state’s national emissions). This chapter gathers the scientific evidence on upstream scope 3 emissions and discusses the available regulatory toolbox for reducing those. Both private and public regulatory tools are represented as well as soft and hard regulatory tools, and modifications between those categories. The interactions between the various types of regulation are discussed with the aim to identify possible synergies and conflicts. The chapter takes the EU as its starting point and draws in examples from other jurisdictions where relevant.

Handbook of Energy Law in the Low-Carbon Transition / 2023
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Long-term exposure to residential transportation noise and mortality: A nationwide cohort study

Mette Sørensen, Kræftens Bekæmpelse, Department of Natural Science and Environment Ole Raaschou-Nielsen Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Kræftens Bekæmpelse Ulla Arthur Hvidtfeldt, Kræftens Bekæmpelse Jørgen Brandt Jibran Khan Steen Solvang Jensen Thomas Münzel, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Jesse Daniel Thacher, Kræftens Bekæmpelse, Lund University, Department of Laboratory Medicine

Studies have indicated that transportation noise is associated with higher cardiovascular mortality, whereas evidence of noise as a risk factor for respiratory and cancer mortality is scarce and inconclusive. Also, knowledge on effects of low-level noise on mortality is very limited. We aimed to investigate associations between road and railway noise and natural-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Danish population. We estimated address-specific road and railway noise at the most (LdenMax) and least (LdenMin) exposed façades for all residential addresses in Denmark from 1990 to 2017 using high-quality exposure models. Using these data, we calculated 10-year time-weighted mean noise exposure for 2.6 million Danes aged >50 years, of whom 600,492 died from natural causes during a mean follow-up of 11.7 years. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for individual and area-level sociodemographic variables and air pollution (PM2.5 and NO2). We found that a 10-year mean exposure to road LdenMax and road LdenMin per 10 dB were associated with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of, respectively, 1.09 (1.09; 1.10) and 1.10 (1.10; 1.11) for natural-cause mortality, 1.09 (1.08; 1.10) and 1.09 (1.08; 1.10) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.13 (1.12; 1.14) and 1.17 (1.16; 1.19) for respiratory mortality and 1.03 (1.02; 1.03) and 1.06 (1.05; 1.07) for cancer mortality. For LdenMax, the associations followed linear exposure-response relationships from 35 dB to 60–<65 dB, after which the function levelled off. For LdenMin, exposure-response relationships were linear from 35 dB and up, with some levelling off at high noise levels for natural-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Railway noise did not seem associated with higher mortality in an exposure-response dependent manner. In conclusion, road traffic noise was associated with higher mortality and the increase in risk started well below the current World Health Organization guideline limit for road traffic noise of 53 dB.

Environmental Pollution / 2023
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Trade makes states

Finn Stepputat

Once known as an example of state collapse, Somali territories today see a number of competing public administrations, which, as this book argues, depend on a dynamic trade sector for revenues. Riffing on Tilly’s idea that ‘war makes states,’ the authors argue instead that ‘trade makes states,’ that the facilitation and capture of commodity flows have been instrumental in making and unmaking state-projects across the Somali territories. The volume draws on multi-sited research of everyday economic life along trade corridors in Somali East Africa, including parts of Kenya and Ethiopia. It examines how government officials, informal traders, militias, local businessmen, international investors, and donors feed into systems of regulatory control in ports, at marketplaces, and along transport corridors. Contributions to the volume draw attention to the ingenuities of transnational Somali trade and the ‘politics of circulation,’ providing important insights into contemporary state formation on the margins of global supply chain capitalism.

DIIS / 2023
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Capacitors for electronic power engineering

Thomas Ebel

Capacitors are fundamental electronic passive components and there are nearly everywhere. There are many different capacitors technologies, with different dielectric materials, form factors and terminals and housings available. This short encyclopedic article discuss the main capacitor types which are relevant for power electronic applications. The main types are Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors, Metallized Film Capacitor, Ceramic Capacitors and Supercapacitors. The principal construction, materials and properties and technological limitations are discussed. Further new upcoming trends of new materials and designs are presented.

Elsevier / 2023
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Remote Control and Remote Risk of Liability? – Vicarious Liability for Remotely Controlled Vessels in Scandinavian and English Law in (Tafsir Matin Johansson et al. eds.)

Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf Arda, Asli

The implementation of unmanned vessels will evidently come with its own legal challenges. One of the most crucial of these is the identification of the role and status of the shore-based controller (SBC) for the purposes of determining liability. Different liability regimes apply different legal principles in this regard. This article will explore these issues from the perspective of English law and Scandinavian law.

Palgrave Macmillan / 2023
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Application of Real-Time Estimation Techniques for Stability Monitoring of Fishing Vessels

Lucía Santiago Caamaño*, Marcos Míguez González, Roberto Galeazzi, Ulrik D. Nielsen, Vicente Díaz Casás

This work presents a comparative study of two signal processing methods for the estimation of the roll natural frequency towards the real-time transverse stability monitoring of fishing vessels. The first method is based on sequential application of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT); the second method combines the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). The performance of the two methods is analysed using roll motion data of a stern trawler. Simulated time series from a one degree-of-freedom nonlinear model, and experimental time series obtained from towing tank tests are utilized for the evaluation. In both cases, beam waves are considered but, while irregular waves are adopted in the simulated data, the towing tank tests are made in regular waves. Based on the available data the performance of both estimation methods is comparable, but the EMD-HHT method turns out slightly better than the sequential FFT. Finally, the use of a statistical change detector, together with the EMD-HHT methodology, is proposed as a possible approach for the practical implementation of an onboard stability monitoring system.

Contemporary Ideas on Ship Stability : From Dynamics to Criteria / 2023
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Market-Based Measures for Sustainable Shipping

Sotiria Lagouvardou

This PhD thesis examines the role of market-based measures (MBMs) in incentivizing international shipping greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions to leverage the decarbonization efforts of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The research motivation sprang from the Initial IMO Strategy, which, among other climate ambitions, envisages at least a 50% curb of GHG emissions until 2050 vis-a-vis 2008 levels. The regulatory framework involves several candidate measures, including MBMs, i.e., environmental policies like carbon taxes and emissions trading systems (ETS) that enforce the "polluter-pays" principle, and thus provide fiscal incentives to stakeholders to eliminate their carbon footprint.

The assessment of MBMs as means of decarbonizing shipping is based on three main pillars: their economic efficiency, their environmental effectiveness, and their climate policy design. Compliance with carbon pricing regimes can entail the adoption of both operational measures, such as speed reduction, route reconfiguration, or voyage optimization techniques, and technological measures like the uptake of zero-carbon technologies and alternative marine fuels. Due to this wide range of conformity practices, this thesis assesses several short- and long-term responses to MBMs in order to encapsulate their cost effectiveness in relation to their carbon abatement potential.

From a climate policy design perspective, the two most prominent types of MBMs are the carbon taxes, a fixed-price approach that provides carbon price certainty, and the ETSs, a fixedquantity system that secures that GHG emissions levels are met. At first, the study evaluates the prospects of a carbon levy to achieve GHG emissions reductions by analyzing the macroeconomic effects of freight rates and fuel prices in inducing slow steaming as an operational response to the MBM. The results show that market conditions influence the overall effectiveness of a tax and that the attained reductions, although significant, are insufficient to reach the 50% decarbonization targets. Moreover, considering the imminent inclusion of the maritime sector into the EU ETS, the thesis examines the scenario of liner shipping operators opting for route reconfigurations as an operational response to a regional ETS. The outputs reveal that replacing EU ports with nearby non-EU competitor ports becomes cost-effective for minimal EU carbon prices. The action would result in carbon leakage, EU ETS evasion, loss of EU ETS revenue, and penalization of the EU ports.

To the extent that MBMs induce technological changes, this thesis evaluates the level of carbon pricing needed to close the price gap between alternative and conventional marine fuels. The analysis considers the capital and operational costs for implementing and utilizing alternative marine fuels onboard and develops their marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) to evaluate their cost-competitiveness and carbon abatement spectrum. The analysis indicates that to reach full maritime decarbonization, fuels such as green liquid hydrogen and their supporting technology, as of today’s cost estimations, would require a carbon price of up to 700 USD/MT CO2e to become cost-competitive.

The thesis concludes that accounting for a well-to-wake scope of emissions will create the right
incentives for developing sustainable alternative marine fuel production pathways to facilitate
shipping’s future energy demand. Revenues from MBMs will be substantial and can accelerate
R&D, scale-up the availability of alternative fuels, subsidize "fist-movers" and green ships and
reverse possible detrimental effects of carbon pricing to developing countries such as the Least
Developed Countries (LDCs) and the Small Island Developing States (SIDS).

PhD thesis / 2023
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Forecasting for the weather driven energy system – A new task under IEA wind

G. Giebel*, C. Draxl, H. Frank, J. Zack, C. Möhrlen, G. Kariniotakis, J. Browell, R. Bessa, D. Lenaghan

The energy system needs a range of forecast types for its operation in addition to the narrow wind power forecast that has been the focus of considerable recent attention. Therefore, the group behind the former IEA Wind Task 36 Forecasting for Wind Energy has initiated a new IEA Wind Task with a much broader perspective, which includes prospective interaction with other IEA Technology Collaboration Programmes such as the ones for PV, hydropower, system integration, hydrogen etc. In the new IEA Wind Task 51 (entitled "Foreacsting for the Weather Drive Energy System") the existing Work Packages (WPs) are complemented by work streams in a matrix structure. The Task is divided in three WPs according to the stakeholders: WP1 is mainly aimed at meteorologists, providing the weather forecast basis for the power forecasts. In WP2, the forecast service vendors are the main stakeholders, while the end users populate WP3. The new Task 51 started in January 2022. Planned activities include 4 workshops. The first will focus on the state of the art in forecasting for the energy system plus related research issues and be held during September 2022 in Dublin. The other three workshops will be held later during the 4-year Task period and address (1) seasonal forecasting with emphasis on Dunkelflaute, storage and hydro, (2) minute-scale forecasting, and (3) extreme power system events. The issues and conclusions of each of the workshops will be documented by a published paper. Additionally, the Recommended Practice on Forecast Solution Selection will be updated to reflect the broader perspective.

Institution of Engineering and Technology / 2023
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Studies in the Fatigue Lives of Offshore Welded Joints considering Non­-Proportionality and Stochastic Effects

Mikkel Løvenskjold Larsen

Offshore jacket foundations for wind turbine generators are in risk of metal fatigue at the weldedjoints due to the highly dynamic wind and wave loading. The complex multiaxial stresses occurringat the welded joints can be non­proportional and lead to increased fatigue damage as compared toproportional stresses. Furthermore, several random effects influence the response of the offshorestructures and the fatigue lives of the welded joints.

In this thesis, the fatigue response of welded joints in offshore jacket structures is assessed. The influence of non­proportional stress states on the fatigue life has been examined using experimental fatigue data from literature by modelling the published experiments using the finite element method (FEM) and assessing the stress states using the notch stress approach. The results show that a nonzero phase­shift between the governing normal and shear stress at the weld toe leads to increased damages at the weld. An approach for determining the non­proportionality penalty factors for obtaining correct fatigue life estimations has been proposed.

To quantify the level of non­proportionality in the stress states at welds a new quantification approach has been developed based on the principal component analysis (PCA). The approach is easy to implement and simple to interpret, which is often difficult for many of the already published methods. The PCA­based approach is furthermore extended to be used with variable amplitude stress states. By implementing the developed quantification approaches in the fatigue life calculation framework, it is possible to determine if non­proportionality occurs and to account for this in the fatigue life estimation automatically using the estimated penalty factors.

The stochastic finite element method (SFEM) has been used to implement approaches for considering the spatial variability occurring in the jacket structures and welds. Closed­form solutions to the stochastic stiffness and stress stiffness matrices have been proposed, making it possible to easily implement the spatial variability of the bending rigidity and other parameters in beam FE models. The matrices have been developed for both classical Euler­Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theory and are based on the Karhunen­Loéve (KL) expansion for random field discretization. The KL expansion is then further used to formulate a stochastic size effect that takes into account that longer welds tend to fail earlier than shorter welds when considering fatigue. Other approaches for taking into account the size effect are often based on statistical evaluation of fatigue experiments which is used to determine a deterministic calibration factor. The stochastic size effect makes it possible to simulate the randomness in a full weld independently of the highest stressed zones. Using this method, the quality of the welding can be simulated and used to predict more accurate fatigue lives.

In order to design more fatigue resistant welded joints in offshore jacket structures, automatic optimization of the welded joints is required. Already published approaches to do so, often focus on only a few simple fatigue criteria. For an optimization framework to be efficient it has to take into account the complex multiaxial non­proportional fatigue and the stochastic effects of the welds. In the thesis, an optimization framework for fatigue life estimation using the developed PCA­based quantifier and the stochastic size effect has been developed. The framework is easy to use and based on simple formulations, making it possible to implement many types of fatigue criteria without having to reformulate the optimization procedure. The framework has been used to optimize the weld locations in a cast steel jacket insert and shows that considerable mass savings can be achieved by automatic
optimization.

University of Southern Denmark / 2022
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The Politics of Piracy Numbers: The Gulf of Guinea Case

Katja Lindskov Jacobsen

The Gulf of Guinea (GoG) region is a vast maritime area off West and Central Africa, and an area of interest to numerous external actors for a range of different reasons including historical relations, trade, oil and fishery. This maritime space is characterised not only by legitimate actors’ presence at sea but also by various types of maritime criminality, with piracy currently being high on the agenda of external actors. Indeed, in 2020, 95% of all maritime kidnappings globally happened in the GoG. Through the application of a specific theoretical lens, namely the politics of piracy numbers, this chapter offers a regional case study of piracy in the GoG. Through this lens, the chapter for example explores how, though being the most counted type of maritime insecurity, piracy is only one aspect of a much broader complex of maritime insecurities. Attending also to the politics of missing numbers, the chapter also explores how far less attention is devoted to counting various onshore dimension of GoG-piracy.

Taylor & Francis / 2022
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