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Energy Management and Operation Optimization of Seaport Microgrids

Nur Najihah Binti Abu Bakar

The emissions of the maritime sector caused by ship transportation and other fossil fuel sources pose a threat to the environment and human health. It drives an increasing interest in adopting electrification solutions to revolutionize the conventional maritime energy-intensive and highly polluting industry. Accordingly, this thesis is one of the pioneering attempts to implement a seaport microgrid and carbon capture shore power system of cold ironing at a port dedicated to sustainability while remaining competitive.
However, the technological and research gaps of the conventional port scheduling paradigm constitute challenges in a synergy between the two prominent maritime electrification systems of seaport microgrids and cold ironing. The incorporation of cold ironing into seaport operations introduces new challenges to handling workflow and the potential impact of such integration has not yet been quantitatively addressed. Developing strategic management to improve port performance is always an issue for the port operators. This research gap motivated this study to develop an integrated operation and energy management framework by executing forecasting and optimization techniques for coordinating these technologies toward the emission neutrality goal.
This thesis begins with an extensive review of the significant aspects of cold ironing technology and seaport microgrids. A range of factors associated with the varying demand for cold ironing in seaport microgrids, requiring advanced forecasting techniques, are described in Chapter 2. Another challenge is that the integration of cold ironing with limited capacities increases the complexity of the existing seaside operation at port namely the berth allocation problem (BAP) and quay crane allocation problem (QCAP). It prolongs the waiting time for the ships to be served at berth. Thus, a seaside operational optimization model is developed in Chapter 3 to cooperatively schedule BAP, QCAP, and cold ironing assignment problems (CIAP). Chapter 4 integrates bilevel optimization as an energy management system (EMS) framework to coordinate the joint cold ironing with the seaport microgrid concept, providing more flexibility in energy scheduling while remaining cost-effective. Finally, Chapter 5 presents the overall conclusions of the thesis, research contribution, and future recommendations.

Aalborg University Open Publishing / 2024
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A High-order Finite Difference Method on Overlapping Grids for Predicting the Hydroelastic Response of Ships

Baoshun Zhou

This PhD thesis presents a numerical solution of the hydroelastic problems encountered especially by large flexible ships sailing in waves. The solution is implemented by extending an existing seakeeping tool (OceanWave3D-seakeeping) to allow for the efficient and accurate evaluation of the hydroelastic response of ships. OceanWave3D-seakeeping has been developed by the Maritime Group at DTU-Construct based on solving the linearized potential flow theory using high-order finite differences on overlapping curvilinear boundary-fitted grids. Modal superposition is employed to couple the hydrodynamic and structural analysis of ships at both zero and non-zero forward speed. The ship girder is approximated by an Euler-Bernoulli or a Timoshenko beam, and the vertical bending deformation is mainly considered in this work. The shear effects on the hydroelastic response are also investigated in the Timoshenko beam approximation. The solution has been validated against experimental measurements and reference numerical solutions for several test cases. The correct computation of the hydrostatic stiffness, structural stiffness and hydrodynamic forces is the key to the
accurate prediction of the hydroelastic response, and these three terms are discussed deeply in this thesis.

With respect to the hydrostatic stiffness model, some controversy has long existed in the literature about its correct form for elastic motion modes, with Newman [1] and Malenica [2] arriving at different forms which are respectively defined in earthand body-fixed reference systems. In this thesis a complete derivation of both forms including the buoyancy and gravitational terms is provided, and the equivalence of the two models associated with elastic motions is confirmed.

A finite element method (FEM) is a common way to compute the structural stiffness of ship hulls. However, for large modern ships, a FEM calculation based on a full structure is inevitably time-consuming since distinguished differences between the longitudinal and the cross-sectional scales of ship hulls usually exist, and the sectional configurations are generally complex, bringing difficulties to numerical modeling. Considering that the structure of modern ships (for example container ships), is usually nearly periodic in the longitudinal direction, in this thesis the ship hull is approximated as a periodic beam and a new implementation of asymptotic homogenization (NIAH) is introduced to efficiently calculate the structural stiffness. This can greatly improve the computational efficiency compared with a full FEM model. Several test cases with both solid and thin-walled sections are given to validate the proposed technique. A range of representative mid-ship sections for a container ship are also considered to investigate the influence of stiffeners on the hydroelastic response.

In the hydrodynamic part, zero-speed and forward-speed radiation and diffraction problems including the well-known m−terms in the body boundary conditions, have both been solved. For generalized modes, the boundary conditions using the corresponding generalized m−terms are applied in the calculation. Neumann-Kelvin (NK) and double-body (DB) linearization models are applied as the steady base flow, and their performance is investigated by comparison with experimental measurements. In head seas, the influence of increasing forward speed on the resonant response of the flexible modes is also studied.

Through the integration of hydroelastic analysis using potential flow theory, and advanced numerical techniques, this thesis contributes to a deeper understanding of the complex interaction between flexible ship hulls and ocean waves, offering valuable insights for the maritime industry.

Technical University of Denmark / 2024
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Greening global value chains

Katerina Peterkova Mitkidis

Most regulatory tools for low-carbon transition are jurisdiction-specific, respecting the principle of national sovereignty. Although possibly locally successful, they typically capture only scope 1 and scope 2 emissions. Value chains-related (scope 3) emissions remain largely unregulated. This is problematic, as global value chains are commonly organized across multiple jurisdictions with different climate policy ambitions. Products are often produced at different location than where they are consumed, and production-related emissions are transferred with the products. These emissions embedded in imported products amount to large volumes (e.g. in the EU estimated to about 30% of member state’s national emissions). This chapter gathers the scientific evidence on upstream scope 3 emissions and discusses the available regulatory toolbox for reducing those. Both private and public regulatory tools are represented as well as soft and hard regulatory tools, and modifications between those categories. The interactions between the various types of regulation are discussed with the aim to identify possible synergies and conflicts. The chapter takes the EU as its starting point and draws in examples from other jurisdictions where relevant.

Handbook of Energy Law in the Low-Carbon Transition / 2023
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Long-term exposure to residential transportation noise and mortality: A nationwide cohort study

Mette Sørensen, Kræftens Bekæmpelse, Department of Natural Science and Environment Ole Raaschou-Nielsen Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Kræftens Bekæmpelse Ulla Arthur Hvidtfeldt, Kræftens Bekæmpelse Jørgen Brandt Jibran Khan Steen Solvang Jensen Thomas Münzel, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Jesse Daniel Thacher, Kræftens Bekæmpelse, Lund University, Department of Laboratory Medicine

Studies have indicated that transportation noise is associated with higher cardiovascular mortality, whereas evidence of noise as a risk factor for respiratory and cancer mortality is scarce and inconclusive. Also, knowledge on effects of low-level noise on mortality is very limited. We aimed to investigate associations between road and railway noise and natural-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Danish population. We estimated address-specific road and railway noise at the most (LdenMax) and least (LdenMin) exposed façades for all residential addresses in Denmark from 1990 to 2017 using high-quality exposure models. Using these data, we calculated 10-year time-weighted mean noise exposure for 2.6 million Danes aged >50 years, of whom 600,492 died from natural causes during a mean follow-up of 11.7 years. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for individual and area-level sociodemographic variables and air pollution (PM2.5 and NO2). We found that a 10-year mean exposure to road LdenMax and road LdenMin per 10 dB were associated with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of, respectively, 1.09 (1.09; 1.10) and 1.10 (1.10; 1.11) for natural-cause mortality, 1.09 (1.08; 1.10) and 1.09 (1.08; 1.10) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.13 (1.12; 1.14) and 1.17 (1.16; 1.19) for respiratory mortality and 1.03 (1.02; 1.03) and 1.06 (1.05; 1.07) for cancer mortality. For LdenMax, the associations followed linear exposure-response relationships from 35 dB to 60–<65 dB, after which the function levelled off. For LdenMin, exposure-response relationships were linear from 35 dB and up, with some levelling off at high noise levels for natural-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Railway noise did not seem associated with higher mortality in an exposure-response dependent manner. In conclusion, road traffic noise was associated with higher mortality and the increase in risk started well below the current World Health Organization guideline limit for road traffic noise of 53 dB.

Environmental Pollution / 2023
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Trade makes states

Finn Stepputat

Once known as an example of state collapse, Somali territories today see a number of competing public administrations, which, as this book argues, depend on a dynamic trade sector for revenues. Riffing on Tilly’s idea that ‘war makes states,’ the authors argue instead that ‘trade makes states,’ that the facilitation and capture of commodity flows have been instrumental in making and unmaking state-projects across the Somali territories. The volume draws on multi-sited research of everyday economic life along trade corridors in Somali East Africa, including parts of Kenya and Ethiopia. It examines how government officials, informal traders, militias, local businessmen, international investors, and donors feed into systems of regulatory control in ports, at marketplaces, and along transport corridors. Contributions to the volume draw attention to the ingenuities of transnational Somali trade and the ‘politics of circulation,’ providing important insights into contemporary state formation on the margins of global supply chain capitalism.

DIIS / 2023
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Capacitors for electronic power engineering

Thomas Ebel

Capacitors are fundamental electronic passive components and there are nearly everywhere. There are many different capacitors technologies, with different dielectric materials, form factors and terminals and housings available. This short encyclopedic article discuss the main capacitor types which are relevant for power electronic applications. The main types are Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors, Metallized Film Capacitor, Ceramic Capacitors and Supercapacitors. The principal construction, materials and properties and technological limitations are discussed. Further new upcoming trends of new materials and designs are presented.

Elsevier / 2023
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Lost in Translation – The ISM Code Revisited

Signe Jensen

As a reaction to an increasing concern with the decreasing of standards in shipping during the 1970s and 1980s the International Maritime Organization adopted the ISM Code, which became mandatory in 1998. This study revisits the ISM Code, firstly exploring the genesis of the code at the international level, and then its operationalization at the national and local level. Based on a three-step case study, the interplay between the essence of the ISM Code and praxis onboard is explored. The study explores the distortion and erosion of the essence of the ISM Code when implemented on the national level in Danish law (step one) and by two Danishbased companies (step two) and finally investigates the local effect of the code as it is displayed onboard (step three).
The study is conducted as an applied socio-legal study; thus, it adopts both an internal (doctrinal) and an external (empirical) approach. It also combines the topdown and bottom-up perspective, consequently applying different methods to fit the content of the different levels examined, while maintaining a qualitative approach.
The research design is inspired by the hermeneutic circle. The first circle (Part I the international level) explores the genesis of the ISM Code, aim to explore the causal explanation for and to determine the essence of the ISM Code. The ‘essence’ is constituted by the ‘principles’ that the regulators intended to be essential to achieve ‘the purpose’. With Santos’s cartographic metaphor as a theoretical analytical framework combined with legal dogmatic method, the first part concentrates on small-scale legality (the international level). The second circle (Part II) is related to medium-scale legality (the national/transnational level). Part II explore the operationalisation of the ISM Code as it is implemented in Danish law, applying legal dogmatic method, combined with analyses of written formal communication to identify the inter-legality that distort the principles when implemented at a national level (step one and two). The third circle (Part III) relates to large-scale legality, applying Goffman’s theoretical framework to analyse the micro level, that constitute the onboard praxis. Praxis is compared with legislation, v revealing a frontstage behaviour that is compliant with regulation and documented by checklists, while in fact praxis deviate, ‘to make it work’ the crew exhibits what Goffman denoted a backstage behaviour.
The ISM Code introduces meta-regulation as a regulatory mechanism. Metaregulation is linked to Santos’s concept of globalization and governance matrix; the study applies Parker’s definition of meta-regulation and the triple loop to study the concept.
The study identifies three principles that constitute the essence of the ISM Code; (1) to establish a genuine link between the company and the flag State; (2) to ensure that the company becomes responsible for the ship’s operation; and (3) to empower the master, ensuring her or his authority. The analyses proved that each of the three principals were distorted at respectively meso and micro level, and that even though the intent was to promote good ship management, in reality it has provided companies the opportunity strut in borrowed plumes.

Syddansk Universitet. Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet / 2023
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Remote Control and Remote Risk of Liability? – Vicarious Liability for Remotely Controlled Vessels in Scandinavian and English Law in (Tafsir Matin Johansson et al. eds.)

Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf Arda, Asli

The implementation of unmanned vessels will evidently come with its own legal challenges. One of the most crucial of these is the identification of the role and status of the shore-based controller (SBC) for the purposes of determining liability. Different liability regimes apply different legal principles in this regard. This article will explore these issues from the perspective of English law and Scandinavian law.

Palgrave Macmillan / 2023
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Application of Real-Time Estimation Techniques for Stability Monitoring of Fishing Vessels

Lucía Santiago Caamaño*, Marcos Míguez González, Roberto Galeazzi, Ulrik D. Nielsen, Vicente Díaz Casás

This work presents a comparative study of two signal processing methods for the estimation of the roll natural frequency towards the real-time transverse stability monitoring of fishing vessels. The first method is based on sequential application of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT); the second method combines the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). The performance of the two methods is analysed using roll motion data of a stern trawler. Simulated time series from a one degree-of-freedom nonlinear model, and experimental time series obtained from towing tank tests are utilized for the evaluation. In both cases, beam waves are considered but, while irregular waves are adopted in the simulated data, the towing tank tests are made in regular waves. Based on the available data the performance of both estimation methods is comparable, but the EMD-HHT method turns out slightly better than the sequential FFT. Finally, the use of a statistical change detector, together with the EMD-HHT methodology, is proposed as a possible approach for the practical implementation of an onboard stability monitoring system.

Contemporary Ideas on Ship Stability : From Dynamics to Criteria / 2023
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Market-Based Measures for Sustainable Shipping

Sotiria Lagouvardou

This PhD thesis examines the role of market-based measures (MBMs) in incentivizing international shipping greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions to leverage the decarbonization efforts of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The research motivation sprang from the Initial IMO Strategy, which, among other climate ambitions, envisages at least a 50% curb of GHG emissions until 2050 vis-a-vis 2008 levels. The regulatory framework involves several candidate measures, including MBMs, i.e., environmental policies like carbon taxes and emissions trading systems (ETS) that enforce the "polluter-pays" principle, and thus provide fiscal incentives to stakeholders to eliminate their carbon footprint.

The assessment of MBMs as means of decarbonizing shipping is based on three main pillars: their economic efficiency, their environmental effectiveness, and their climate policy design. Compliance with carbon pricing regimes can entail the adoption of both operational measures, such as speed reduction, route reconfiguration, or voyage optimization techniques, and technological measures like the uptake of zero-carbon technologies and alternative marine fuels. Due to this wide range of conformity practices, this thesis assesses several short- and long-term responses to MBMs in order to encapsulate their cost effectiveness in relation to their carbon abatement potential.

From a climate policy design perspective, the two most prominent types of MBMs are the carbon taxes, a fixed-price approach that provides carbon price certainty, and the ETSs, a fixedquantity system that secures that GHG emissions levels are met. At first, the study evaluates the prospects of a carbon levy to achieve GHG emissions reductions by analyzing the macroeconomic effects of freight rates and fuel prices in inducing slow steaming as an operational response to the MBM. The results show that market conditions influence the overall effectiveness of a tax and that the attained reductions, although significant, are insufficient to reach the 50% decarbonization targets. Moreover, considering the imminent inclusion of the maritime sector into the EU ETS, the thesis examines the scenario of liner shipping operators opting for route reconfigurations as an operational response to a regional ETS. The outputs reveal that replacing EU ports with nearby non-EU competitor ports becomes cost-effective for minimal EU carbon prices. The action would result in carbon leakage, EU ETS evasion, loss of EU ETS revenue, and penalization of the EU ports.

To the extent that MBMs induce technological changes, this thesis evaluates the level of carbon pricing needed to close the price gap between alternative and conventional marine fuels. The analysis considers the capital and operational costs for implementing and utilizing alternative marine fuels onboard and develops their marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) to evaluate their cost-competitiveness and carbon abatement spectrum. The analysis indicates that to reach full maritime decarbonization, fuels such as green liquid hydrogen and their supporting technology, as of today’s cost estimations, would require a carbon price of up to 700 USD/MT CO2e to become cost-competitive.

The thesis concludes that accounting for a well-to-wake scope of emissions will create the right
incentives for developing sustainable alternative marine fuel production pathways to facilitate
shipping’s future energy demand. Revenues from MBMs will be substantial and can accelerate
R&D, scale-up the availability of alternative fuels, subsidize "fist-movers" and green ships and
reverse possible detrimental effects of carbon pricing to developing countries such as the Least
Developed Countries (LDCs) and the Small Island Developing States (SIDS).

PhD thesis / 2023
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