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Being Green on Sulphur: Targets, Measures and Side-Effects

Kontovas, Christos A.; Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Stamatopoulou, Eirini

Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are not the only emissions of concern to the international transport community. SOx emissions are non-GHG emissions that are caused by the presence of sulphur in the fuel. As the maximum percentage of sulphur in automotive and aviation fuels is strictly regulated in most countries around the world, much of the attention in recent years has focused on maritime transport. The attention mainly stems from the fact that in marine fuels the percentage of sulphur can be very high: it can be as high as 4.5 % in Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), which is the fuel typically used in all deep-sea trades. Even though the amounts of SOx produced by ships are substantially lower than CO2, SOx emissions are highly undesirable as they cause acid rain and undesirable health effects in humans and animals. To mitigate these adverse environmental effects, the international shipping community has taken substantial policy measures. With the introduction of new limits for the content of sulphur in marine fuels in Northern European and North American sea areas, short-sea companies operating in these areas will face substantial additional cost. As of 1/1/2015, international regulations stipulate, among other things, a 0.1 % limit in the sulphur content of marine fuels, or equivalent measures limiting the percent of SOx emissions to the same amount. As low-sulphur fuel is substantially more expensive than HFO, there is little or no room within these companies current margins to absorb such additional cost, and thus significant price increases must be expected. Unlike its deep-sea counterpart, in short-sea shipping such a freight rate increase may induce shippers to use land-based alternatives (mainly road). A reverse shift of cargo would go against the EU policy to shift traffic from land to sea to reduce congestion, and might ultimately (under certain circumstances) increase the overall level of CO2 emissions along the entire supply chain. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the potential effect of sulphur regulations on the share of cargo transported by the waterborne mode vis-à-vis land-based alternative

Green Transportation Logistics. International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, vol 226 / 2016
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Mapping the Landscape of Future Research Themes in Supply Chain Management

Andreas Wieland, Robert Handfield, Christian F. Durach

Supply chain researchers are confronted with a dizzying array of research questions, many of which are not mutually independent. This research was motivated by the need to map the landscape of research themes, identify potential overlapping areas and interactions, and provide guidelines on areas of focus for researchers to pursue. We conducted a three-phase research study, beginning with an open-ended collection of opinions on research themes collected from 102 supply chain management (SCM) researchers, followed by an evaluation of a consolidated list of themes by 141 SCM researchers. These results were then reviewed by 10 SCM scholars. Potential interactions and areas of overlap were identified, classified, and integrated into a compelling set of ideas for future research in the field of SCM. We believe these ideas provide a forward-looking view on those themes that will become important, as well as those that researchers believe should be focused on. While areas of research deemed to become most important include big data and analytics, the most under-researched areas include efforts that target the “people dimension” of SCM, ethical issues and internal integration. The themes are discussed in the context of current developments that the authors believe will provide a valuable foundation for future research.

Journal of Business Logistics / 2016
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Coping with Captivity in a maritime hijacking situation

Froholdt, Lisa Loloma

Piracy has unfortunately become a health and safety risk for seafarers in the maritime industry today. However, little do we know about the impact of a pirate hijacking situation and how seafarers cope. Focusing on negotiation communication, the analysis debouches in a discussion of the dynamics of coping strategies, by investigating 173 authentic audio recordings of communication sequences recorded during a pirate hijacking situation that were donated voluntarily by a shipping company. The Captain assessed and reflected on the course of events in the situation, to which the negotiator responded appropriately, with acknowledging brief responses or psychological aid. This is similar to other highly dynamic decision-making settings, where decision-makers tend to continuously reflect and revise their view of the situation (Eraut 2000). The data is also consistent with the “reflection-in-action” concept by Schön (1983) used by van den Heuvel et al. (Cogn Technol Work 16: 25–45, 2014) in their investigation of communication of police officers in hostage situations. However, the coping dynamics changed when the negotiator’s responses became too minimal. This shows how the context and the individual’s cognitive appraisal of the encounter co-shapes the coping dynamics in the situation. It is urged that pre-piracy care and seafarer training involves practical examples and information about roles and coping dynamics in negotiation communication as part of an orchestrated approach to the scourge of piracy.

WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, volume 16 / 2016
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Partnerships for environmental technology development in the shipping industry: two Danish case studies

Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Smink, Carla Kornelia; Kerndrup, Søren

The shipping industry faces huge challenges with regard to improving its environmental performance. The current regulatory approach has not been successful. Public and private actors increasingly rely on partnerships. The literature on partnerships for sustainability has contributed to a better conceptualisation of the subject. However, less is known about the processes and the outcomes of the partnerships as well as interactions between partnerships. This paper aims to improve the understanding of how partnerships contribute to developing cleaner technologies in the Danish shipping industry. Two partnerships have been analysed: Partnership for Cleaner Shipping and the Green Ship of the Future. Participation, scope and division of roles among partners have influenced both partnerships. Furthermore, both partnerships have developed organisational forms that proved to overcome the tensions in traditional partnerships, between open and information-based networking on the one side and closed and development-oriented collaboration on the other side.

International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development (IJISD), Vol. 10, No. 3, 2016 / 2016
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The Logic of Business vs. the Logic of Energy Management Practice: Understanding the Choices and Effects of Energy Consumption Monitoring Systems in Shipping Companies

Taudal Poulsen, René; Johnson, Hannes

A major part of the world fleet of more than 47,000 merchant ships operates under conditions that hamper energy efficiency and efforts to cut CO2 emissions. Valid and reliable data sets on ships' energy consumption are often missing in shipping markets and within shipping organizations, leading to the non-implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures. Policy makers are aiming to remedy this, e.g., through the EU Monitoring, Verification and Reporting scheme. In this paper, current practices for energy consumption monitoring in ship operations are explored based on interviews with 55 professionals in 34 shipping organizations in Denmark. Best practices, which require several years to implement, are identified, as are common challenges in implementing such practices—related to data collection, incentives for data misreporting, data analysis problems, as well as feedback and communication problems between ship and shore. This study shows how the logic of good energy consumption monitoring practices conflict with common business practices in shipping companies – e.g., through short-term vessel charters and temporary ship organizations – which in turn can explain the slow adoption of energy efficiency measures in the industry. This study demonstrates a role for policy makers or other third parties in mandating or standardizing good energy consumption monitoring practices beyond the present requirements.

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 112 / 2016
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Buyer-driven Greening? Cargo-Owners and Environmental Upgrading in Maritime Shipping

Poulsen, René Taudal; Ponte, Stefano; Lister, Jane

In this article, we examine the relations between global value chain governance and environmental upgrading in maritime shipping. Drawing from interviews with global shipping companies and major buyers of shipping services (cargo-owners), we reveal the key issues and challenges faced in improving the environmental performance of maritime transportation. Contributing to the Global Value Chain (GVC) literature, we compare and analyze the influence of three main external drivers on environmental upgrading in the tanker, bulk and container shipping segments: regulation, cooperation and buyer demands. Our findings suggest that environmental upgrading is more likely to occur when global value chains are characterized by unipolar governance and where the lead firms are consumer-facing companies with reputational risks. Furthermore, environmental upgrading in shipping is not likely to materialize without clear and enforceable global regulation and stronger alignment between regulation and voluntary sustainability initiatives.

Geoforum, Volume 68 / 2016
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Importance of Vanadium-Catalyzed Oxidation of SO2 to SO3 in Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

Colom, Juan M.; Alzueta, María U.; Christensen, Jakob M.; Glarborg, Peter; Cordtz, Rasmus; Schramm, Jesper

Low-speed marine diesel engines are mostly operated on heavy fuel oils, which have a high content of sulfur and ash, including trace amounts of vanadium, nickel, and aluminum. In particular, vanadium oxides could catalyze in-cylinder oxidation of SO2 to SO3, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid and enhancing problems of corrosion. In the present work, the kinetics of the catalyzed oxidation was studied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. Vanadium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by spray flame pyrolysis, i.e., by a mechanism similar to the mechanism leading to the formation of the catalytic species within the engine. Experiments with different particle compositions (vanadium/sodium ratio) and temperatures (300–800 °C) show that both the temperature and sodium content have a major impact on the oxidation rate. Kinetic parameters for the catalyzed reaction are determined, and the proposed kinetic model fits well with the experimental data. The impact of the catalytic reaction is studied with a phenomenological zero-dimensional (0D) engine model, where fuel oxidation and SOx formation is modeled with a comprehensive gas-phase reaction mechanism. Results indicate that the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 in the cylinder is dominated by gas-phase reactions and that the vanadium-catalyzed reaction is at most a very minor pathway.

Energy Fuels / 2016
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Improved Wave-vessel Transfer Functions by Uncertainty Modelling

Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Fønss Bach, Kasper; Iseki, Toshio

This paper deals with uncertainty modelling of wave-vessel transfer functions used to calculate or predict wave-induced responses of a ship in a seaway. Although transfer functions, in theory, can be calculated to exactly reflect the behaviour of the ship when exposed to waves, uncertainty in input variables, notably speed, draft and relative wave heading, often compromises results. In this study, uncertainty modelling is applied to improve theoretically calculated
transfer functions, so they better fit the corresponding experimental, full-scale ones. Based on a vast amount of full-scale measurements data, it is shown that uncertainty modelling can be successfully used to improve accuracy (and reliability) of theoretical transfer functions.

Nihon Kokai Gakkai Ronbunshu, 134 / 2016
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Full-shipload tramp ship routing and scheduling with variable speeds

Wen, Min; Røpke, Stefan; Petersen, H.L.; Larsen,R.; Madsen,O.B.G.

This paper investigates the simultaneous optimization problem of routing and sailing speed in the context of full-shipload tramp shipping. In this problem, a set of cargoes can be transported from their load to discharge ports by a fleet of heterogeneous ships of different speed ranges and load-dependent fuel consumption. The objective is to determine which orders to serve and to find the optimal route for each ship and the optimal sailing speed on each leg of the route so that the total profit is maximized. The problem originated from a real-life challenge faced by a Danish tramp shipping company in the tanker business. To solve the problem, a three-index mixed integer linear programming formulation as well as a set packing formulation is presented. A novel Branch-and-Price algorithm with efficient data preprocessing and heuristic column generation is proposed. The computational results on the test instances generated from real-life data show that the heuristic provides optimal solutions for small test instances and near-optimal solutions for larger test instances in a short running time. The effects of speed optimization and the sensitivity of the solutions to the fuel price change are analyzed. It is shown that speed optimization can improve the total profit by 16% on average and the fuel price has a significant effect on the average sailing speed and total profit.

Computers & Operations Research, Volume 70 / 2016
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The liner shipping berth scheduling problem with transit times

Reinhardt, Line Blander; Plum, Christian E.M.; Pisinger, David; Sigurd, Mikkel M.; Vial, Guillaume T.P.

In this paper speed optimization of an existing liner shipping network is solved by adjusting the port berth times. The objective is to minimize fuel consumption while retaining the customer transit times including the transhipment times. To avoid too many changes to the time table, changes of port berth times are only accepted if they lead to savings above a threshold value. Since the fuel consumption of a vessel is a non-linear convex function of the speed, it is approximated by a piecewise linear function. The developed model is solved using exact methods in less than two minutes for large instances. Computational experiments on real-size liner shipping networks are presented showing that fuels savings in the magnitude 2–10% can be obtained. The work has been carried out in collaboration with Maersk Line and the tests instances are confirmed to be representative of real-life networks.

Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review Volume 86 / 2016
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