The maritime industry is one of the greenest modes of transportation, taking care of almost 90% of the global trade. The maritime container business revolves around liner shipping, which consists of container vessels sailing on fixed itineraries. For the last 20 years, there has been an increasing number of publications regarding how to design such fixed routes (services), to ensure a high level of service while minimizing operational costs and environmental impact. The liner shipping network design problem can briefly be described as follows: Given a set of demands (defined by origin, destination, time limit) and a set of vessels with variable capacity, the task is to design a set of weekly services, assign vessels to the services, and flow the demand through the resulting network such that it arrives within the stated time constraints. The objective is to maximize revenue of transported demand subtracting the operational costs. We present an in-depth literature overview of existing models and solution methods for liner shipping network design, and discuss the four main families of solution methods: integrated mixed integer programming models; two-stage algorithms designing services in the first step and flowing containers in the second step; two-stage algorithms first flowing containers and then designing services; and finally algorithms for selecting a subset of proposed candidate services. We end the presentation by comparing the performance of leading algorithms using the public LINER-LIB instances. The paper is concluded by discussing future trends in liner shipping, indicating directions for future research.
This paper aims to conduct an updated literature survey on the Market-Based Measures (MBMs) currently being proposed by various member states and organizations at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) or by the scientific and grey literature as a cost-effective solution to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. Τhe paper collects, summarizes, and categorizes the different proposals to provide a clear understanding of the existing discussions on the field and also identifies the areas of prior investigation in order to prevent duplication and to avoid the future discussion at the IMO to start from scratch. Relevant European Union (EU) action on MBMs is also described. Furthermore, the study identifies inconsistencies, gaps in research, conflicting studies, or unanswered questions that form challenges for the implementation of any environmental policy at a global level for shipping. Finally, by providing foundational knowledge on the topic of MBMs for shipping and by exploring inadequately investigated areas, the study addresses concrete research questions that can be investigated and resolved by the scientific and shipping community
To achieve IMO’s goal of a 50% reduction of GHG emission by 2050 (compared to the 2008 levels), shipping must not only work towards an optimization of each ship and its components but aim for an optimization of the complete marine transport system, including fleet planning, harbour logistics, route planning, speed profiles, weather routing and ship design. ShipCLEAN, a newly developed model, introduces a coupling of a marine transport economics model to a sophisticated ship energy systems model – it provides a leap towards a holistic optimization of marine transport systems. This paper presents how the model is applied to propose a reduction in fuel consumption and environmental impact by speed reduction of a container ship on a Pacific Ocean trade and the implementation of wind assisted propulsion on a MR Tanker on a North Atlantic trade. The main conclusions show that an increase of the fuel price, for example by applying a bunker levy, will lead to considerable, economically motivated speed reductions in liner traffic. The case study sowed possible yearly fuel savings of almost 21 300 t if the fuel price would be increased from 300 to 1000 USD/t. Accordingly, higher fuel prices can motivate the installation of wind assisted propulsion, which potentially saves up to 500 t of fuel per year for the investigated MR Tanker on a transatlantic route.
The purpose of this paper is to assess the status and prospects of the decarbonization of maritime transport. Already more than two years have passed since the landmark decision of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in April 2018, which entailed ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. The paper attempts to address the following three questions: (a) where do we stand with respect to GHG emissions from ships, (b) how is the Initial IMO Strategy progressing, and (c) what should be done to move ahead? To that effect, our methodology includes commenting on some of the key issues addressed by the recently released 4th IMO GHG study, assessing progress at the IMO since 2018, and finally identifying other issues that we consider relevant and important as regards maritime GHG emissions, such as for instance the role of the European Green Deal and how this may interact with the IMO process. Even though the approach of the paper is to a significant extent qualitative, some key quantitative and modelling aspects are considered as well. On the basis of our analysis, our main conjecture is that there is not yet light at the end of the tunnel with respect to decarbonizing maritime transport.
A computational fluid dynamics study of the scavenging process in a large two-stroke marine engine is presented in this work. Scavenging which is one of the key processes in the two-stroke marine engines, has a direct effect on fuel economy and emissions. This process is responsible for fresh air delivery, removing the combustion products from the cylinder, cooling the combustion chamber surfaces and providing a swirling flow for better air-fuel mixing. Therefore, having a better understanding of this process and the associated flow pattern is crucial. This is not achievable solely by experimental tests for large engines during engine operation due to the difficulties of measuring the flow field inside the cylinder. In this study, the axial and tangential velocities are compared and validated with the experimental results obtained from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) tests . The simulations are conducted using both Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models. We observe in general, there is a good agreement between the numerical and experimental results. The flow inside the cylinder is studied in different locations related to the bottom of the scavenging ports during the period with open exhaust valve. Moreover, the replacement of combustion products with fresh scavenge air is analysed. The effective flow angle is calculated for the air flow through the scavenging ports. It is found that the effective flow angle is different from the geometrical angle of the ports (20°). Results illustrate better performance of LES, especially in the prediction of the tangential velocity which is crucial for the simulation of an accurate swirl and air-fuel mixing inside the marine engines. LES predicts a uniform profile for the tangential velocity at the top of cylinder which is consistent with the experimental results while URANS predicts a solid body rotation.
Currently, the shipping industry is facing a great challenge of reducing emissions. Reducing ship speeds will reduce the emissions in the immediate future with no additional infrastructure. However, a detailed investigation is required to verify the claim that a 10% speed reduction would lead to 19% fuel savings (Faber et al., 2012).
This paper investigates fuel savings due to speed reduction using detailed modeling of ship performance. Three container ships, two bulk carriers, and one tanker, representative of the shipping fleet, have been designed. Voyages have been simulated by modeling calm water resistance, wave resistance, propulsion efficiency, and engine limits. Six ships have been simulated in various weather conditions at different speeds. Potential fuel savings have been estimated for a range of speed reductions in realistic weather.
It is concluded that the common assumption of cubic speed-power relation can cause a significant error in the estimation of bunker consumption. Simulations in different seasons have revealed that fuel savings due to speed reduction are highly weather dependent. Therefore, a simple way to include the effect of weather in shipping transport models has been proposed.
Speed reduction can lead to an increase in the number of ships to fulfill the transport demand. Therefore, the emission reduction potential of speed reduction strategy, after accounting for the additional ships, has been studied. Surprisingly, when the speed is reduced by 30%, fuel savings vary from 2% to 45% depending on ship type, size and weather conditions. Fuel savings further reduce when the auxiliary engines are considered.
A conceptual design framework for collision and grounding analysis is proposed to evaluate the crashworthiness of double-hull structures. This work attempts to simplify the input parameters needed for the analysis, which can be considered as a step towards a design-oriented procedure against collision and grounding. Four typical collision and grounding scenarios are considered: (1) side structure struck by a bulbous bow, (2) side structure struck by a straight bow, (3) bottom raking, (4) bottom stranding. The analyses of these scenarios are based on statistical data of striking ship dimensions, velocities, collision angles and locations, as well as seabed shapes and sizes, grounding depth and location. The evaluation of the damage extent considers the 50- and 90-percentile values from the statistics of collision and grounding accidents. The external dynamics and internal mechanics are combined to analyse systematically the ship structural damage and energy absorption under accidental loadings.
In global liner shipping networks, a large share of transported cargo is transshipped at least once between container vessels, and the total transportation time of these containers depends on how well the corresponding services are synchronized. We propose a problem formulation that integrates service scheduling into the liner shipping network design problem. Furthermore, the model incorporates many industry-relevant modeling aspects: it allows for leg-based sailing speed optimization, it is not limited to simple or butterfly-type services, and it accounts for service-level requirements such as cargo transit time limits. The classic liner shipping network design problem is already a hard problem, and to solve the extended version, we propose a column-generation matheuristic that uses advanced linear programming techniques. The proposed method solves LINER-LIB instances of up to 114 ports and, if applied to the classic liner shipping network design problem, finds new best solutions to all instances, outperforming existing methods reported in the literature. Additionally, we analyze the relevance of scheduling for liner shipping network design. The results indicate that neglecting scheduling and approximating transshipments instead may result in the design of liner shipping networks that underestimate cargo transit times and their implications.
We present the results of a numerical model which has been developed for estimating the contribution to the methane slip from different sources in a four-stroke dual-fuel marine engine running on natural gas. The model is a thermodynamic three-zone zero-dimensional full engine cycle model and considers methane slip contributions from short-circuiting, crevices and wall quenching. The model is applied to analyze the methane slip from a four-stroke dual-fuel medium speed marine engine using natural gas as primary fuel. At low loads, wall quenching is found to be the dominant contribution to the methane slip. At full load, the wall quenching contribution is comparable to the level of the short-circuiting and crevice contributions which only vary relatively little with load. At 75% load, the contribution from short-circuiting is highest. In addition, we found that in-cylinder post-oxidation of unburned fuel remaining after the main combustion is negligible.
In this paper we extend the state-of-the-art stochastic programming models for the Maritime Fleet Renewal Problem (MFRP) to explicitly limit the risk of insolvency due to negative cash flows when making maritime shipping investments. This is achieved by modeling the payment of ships in a number of periodical installments rather than in a lump sum paid upfront, representing more closely the actual cash flows for a shipping company. Based on this, we propose two alternative risk control measures, where the first imposes that the cash flow in each time period is always higher than a desired threshold, while the second limits the Conditional Value-at-Risk. We test the two models on realistic test instances based on data from a shipping company. The computational study demonstrates how the two models can be used to assess the trade-offs between risk of insolvency and expected profits in the MFRP.