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Blue Paradigms: understanding the intellectual revolution in global ocean politics

Bueger, Christian, Felix Mallin

The oceans have received extraordinary international attention in global policy and research. New insecurities and uncertainties, ranging from intensifying interstate disputes to persistent piracy and overfishing as well as to pollution, deoxygenation and climate change imply that the oceans are increasingly seen as being in crisis. This revolution in thinking about and addressing the oceans is driven by new ideas of why the oceans need political attention and care. In this article we demonstrate how four key new ‘blue paradigms’—maritime security, blue economy, ocean health and blue justice—have evolved and turned the oceans into a new area of priority. Each of these paradigms drives global ocean politics in different directions, which implies risks of fragmentation and conflicts. We work out the key differences between paradigms, investigating their underlying problematization, priorities and communities of practices involved. This provides a new map for navigating the complexity of global ocean politics useful for policy-makers and scholars. Thinking through paradigms also establishes a new analytical framework that allows for identifying conflicting priorities, tensions between ocean communities of practice, and ideas of how these can be managed. We conclude with a call for creative thinking of how synergies between the blue paradigms can be achieved in strategy, planning and research.

International Affairs / 2023
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paper

Next Generation Supply Chain Management: The Impact of Cloud Computing

Britta Gammelgaard, Katarzyna Nowicka*

Purpose
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of cloud computing (CC) on supply chain management (SCM).

Design/methodology/approach
The paper is conceptual and based on a literature review and conceptual analysis.

Findings
Today, digital technology is the primary enabler of supply chain (SC) competitiveness. CC capabilities support competitive SC challenges through structural flexibility and responsiveness. An Internet platform based on CC and a digital ecosystem can serve as “information cross-docking” between SC stakeholders. In this way, the SC model is transformed from a traditional, linear model to a platform model with the simultaneous cooperation of all partners. Platform-based SCs will be a milestone in the evolution of SCM – here conceptualised as Supply Chain 3.0.

Research limitations/implications
Currently, SCs managed holistically in cyberspace are rare in practice, and therefore empirical evidence on how digital technologies impact SC competitiveness is required in future research.

Practical implications
This research generates insights that can help managers understand and develop the next generation of SCM with the use of CC, a modern and commonly available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) tool.

Originality/value
The paper presents a conceptual basis of how CC enables structural flexibility of SCs through easy, real-time resource and capacity reconfiguration. CC not only reduces cost and increases flexibility but also offers an effective solution for disruptive new business models with the potential to revolutionise current SCM thinking.

Journal of Enterprise Information Management / 2023
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paper

Shipping Legitimacy and Identity: The Danish Maritime Museum, 1915 and 2013

Anders Ravn Sørensen

In this article, the author describes how the creation of the Danish maritime museums in 1915 and 2013 – both generously funded by maritime foundations and actors – was perceived by the shipping industry as initiatives that would help market the industry in the eyes of the public. He argues more generally that national maritime museums constitute focal points for disseminating narratives that legitimate maritime activities and establish these activities as symbols of national identities. It is suggested that maritime historians, curators and scholars reflect on the relationship between maritime industry actors and museum exhibition narratives, and consider the interests and capital that potentially underpin museums’ and curators’ decisions.

International Journal of Maritime History / 2023
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Reflections on Georges Scelle’s Theory of the Law of dédoublement fonctionnel in the Law of the Sea: Two Models for the Protection of Community Interests

Yoshifumi Tanaka

A tension between two opposing forces, that is, the force of division and that of unity, is increasingly sharpened in the law of the sea today. An essential question that arises is how one can protect community interests in the divided ocean. The law of dédoublement fonctionnel advocated by Georges Scelle provides an insight into this question. According to Scelle’s theory of the law of dédoublement fonctionnel, State organs perform a dual function: the national function of protecting State interests and the public service function of safeguarding community interests. The law of dédoublement fonctionnel seeks to reconcile these functions. Scelle’s harmonistic vision of international law is well worth reconsidering in the law of the sea and beyond. This article examines the relevance of Scelle’s theory in the context of the law of the sea and explores two models for the protection of community interests at sea.

The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law / 2023
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Critical Maritime Infrastructure Protection: What’s the trouble?

Christian Bueger, Tobias Liebetrau

The protection of critical maritime infrastructures has become a top political priority, since the September 2022 attacks on the Nord Stream pipelines in the Baltic Sea. This contribution reveals why the protection of infrastructures at sea is a difficult task. Reviewing the spectrum of maritime infrastructures (transport, energy, data, fishing, ecosystems) and the potential threats to them (accidents, terrorism, blue crime, grey zone tactics) demonstrates that designating infrastructures as critical and worthy of special protection measures is a political choice. The analysis moreover shows the need of protective instruments that are tailored to the specificities of maritime space, and the need for integrating diverse policy fields, including defense, diplomacy, marine safety, maritime security and cyber security. Cooperation with the infrastructure industry, enhanced surveillance and investments in repair capacities are also required.

Marine Policy / 2023
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Hydroelastic solutions using a high-order finite difference method based on the mode functions of a Timoshenko beam

Zhou, Baoshun; Amini Afshar, Mostafa; Bingham, Harry B.; Shao, Yanlin

This work is part of the ongoing implementation of hydroelastic solution for ships inside the OceanWave3D-seakeeping code. This solver has been developed by the Maritime Group at DTU- Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering based on linearized potential flow theory. The numerical implementation has been conducted on overlapping grids using a high-order finite difference method. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) has been employed to transform the time-domain hydrodynamic solutions to frequency-domain solutions. A pseudo-impulse tailored to the desired frequency range is used as the forcing for the time-domain solution. In previous work, a preliminary implementation of hydroelastic solutions was implemented in OceanWave3D-seakeeping with an Euler-Bernoulli beam model to represent the eigenmodes of the flexible ship hull. However, shear effects are ignored by this beam theory, even though the shear effect is very important to acurately predict the structural deformation especially for a thick beam model. In this work, ship hulls have been treated using the Timoshenko beam model includ- ing shear effects. The influence of shear effects are also discussed through a couple of numerical test cases. Good agreement with reference solutions illustrates the effectiveness of the numerical implementation. The current work focuses on zero speed, and work is also in progress to validate the implementation at forward speeds

Abstract from 23rd Nordic Maritime Universities Workshop, Göteborg, Sweden / 2023
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Numerical study of higher-harmonic wave loads and runup on monopiles with and without ice-breaking cones based on a phase-inversion method

Wei Shi*, Xinmeng Zeng, Xingya Feng, Yanlin Shao, Xin Li

Ice-breaking cones are commonly used in the design of marine structures in cold regions. This study investigates the effects of higher-harmonic wave loads and wave runup on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine with and without ice-breaking cones under extreme wave conditions on the Liaodong Peninsula in China. Two ice-breaking cones (upward-downward and inverted types) are considered. The numerical model adopts a two-phase flow by solving unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations using the volume of fluid (VOF) method. A phase decomposition method through a ‘Stokes-like’ formulation was adopted to obtain the parameters for each harmonics. The presence of the conical part is seen to increase the second-harmonic wave loads by up to 40%, but it has only limited influence on the fourth and fifth harmonics. The upward-downward-type ice-breaking cone increases the third harmonic, while the inverted-type ice-breaking cone decreases the third harmonic. Due to the phase difference between the first-harmonic and higher harmonics, the largest wave runup occurs at 0°, and 135° is the location with the smallest wave runup. This is because at the 135-degree location, the linear component is positive but the other nonlinear components are negative. For the 0-degree location, all harmonics are positive. By contrast, the inverted type has little effect. The high harmonic wave runup of the minimum point is backwards compared with that of the monopile, and most nonlinear wave runups are different upstream of the monopile.

Ocean Engineering / 2023
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Decentralized Service: An Initiation of Blockchain Value Creation into Service Science

Nico Wunderlich, Jan Schwiderowski, Roman Beck

How value is created through service has recently undergone massive changes. Centralized service provision with clear distinctions between service offerers and beneficiaries is increasingly being substituted by value creation within decentralized networks of distributed actors integrating digital resources. One of the drivers of this transformation is blockchain technology. Applying the lens of service-dominant logic and discussing examples of blockchain-based decentralized finance, we shed light on how properties of decentralized technology stimulate value creation in service ecosystems. With this conceptual research, we postulate five propositions of decentralized value creation along the axiomatic foundations of the service-dominant logic. We provide first definitions for decentralized service as well as decentralized service ecosystems. Thereby, we contribute with an extension of the service-dominant logic to the context of decentralized ecosystems. To our knowledge, this research is among the first to add to the growing literature on blockchain value creation from a service science perspective.

Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences / 2023
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Going offshore or not: Where to generate hydrogen in future integrated energy systems?

Juan Gea-Bermúdez*, Rasmus Bramstoft, Matti Koivisto, Lena Kitzing, Andrés Ramos

Hydrogen can be key in the energy system transition. We investigate the role of offshore hydrogen generation in a future integrated energy system. By performing energy system optimisation in a model application of the Northern-central European energy system and the North Sea offshore grid towards 2050, we find that offshore hydrogen generation may likely only play a limited role, and that offshore wind energy has higher value when sent to shore in the form of electricity. Forcing all hydrogen generation offshore would lead to increased energy system costs. Under the assumed scenario conditions, which result in deep decarbonisatiton of the energy system towards 2050, hydrogen generation – both onshore and offshore – follows solar PV generation patterns. Combined with hydrogen storage, this is the most cost-effective solution to satisfy future hydrogen demand. Overall, we find that the role of future offshore hydrogen generation should not simply be derived from minimising costs for the offshore sub-system, but by also considering the economic value that such generation would create for the whole integrated energy system. We find as a no-regret option to enable and promote the integration of offshore wind in onshore energy markets via electrical connections.

Energy Policy / 2023
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A practical data quality assessment method for raw data in vessel operations

Gang Chen, Jie Cai*, Niels Rytter, Marie Lützen

With the current revolution in Shipping 4.0, a tremendous amount of data is accumulated during vessel operations.
Data quality (DQ) is becoming more and more important for the further digitalization and effective decision-making
in shipping industry. In this study, a practical DQ assessment method for raw data in vessel operations is proposed.
In this method, specific data categories and data dimensions are developed based on engineering practice and existing
literature. Concrete validation rules are then formed, which can be used to properly divide raw datasets. Afterwards,
a scoring method is used for the assessment of the data quality. Three levels, namely good, warning and alarm,
are adopted to reflect the final data quality. The root causes of bad data quality could be revealed once the internal
dependency among rules has been built, which will facilitate the further improvement of DQ in practice. A case study
based on the datasets from a Danish shipping company is conducted, where the DQ variation is monitored, assessed
and compared. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective to help shipping industry improve the quality
of raw data in practice. This innovation research can facilitate shipping industry to set a solid foundation at the early
stage of their digitalization journeys.

Journal of Marine Science and Application / 2023
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