Media: Paper


Capturing the effect of biofouling on ships by incremental machine learning

Malte Mittendorf*, Ulrik Dam Nielsen, Harry B. Bingham

Performance data from ships is subject to distributional shifts, sometimes referred to as concept drift. In this study, synthetic monitoring data is simulated for the KVLCC2, considering publicly available reference data and a semi-empirical simulation framework. Neural networks are trained to predict the required shaft power and to overcome the deterioration in model accuracy due to concept drift, three methods of incremental learning are applied and compared: (1) Layer freezing, (2) regularization, and (3) elastic weight consolidation. Furthermore, an implicit methodology for quantifying the changing hull and propeller performance is presented. In addition, a generic feature engineering framework is used for eliminating insignificant features. In two investigations, sudden and incremental concept drift scenarios are examined, and the effect of different uncertainty categories on model performance is studied in parallel based on three different datasets. As a main finding, it is confirmed that data quality is of great importance for accurate machine learning-driven performance monitoring — even in simulated environments. Furthermore, the study shows that freezing layers during incremental learning proves to be most robust and accurate, but it will be part of future work to examine this on actual sensor data.

Applied Ocean Research / 2023
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State Capitalism and Spanish Port Development along the Maritime Silk Road

Federico Jensen

With the rise of ‘new’ state capitalisms, control over transport infrastructure has returned to the forefront of competition in the global economy. This article investigates how different state capitalisms interact to enable economic developments in ports. It tracks the relationship between state-owned firms in the shipping and ports sectors through a case study of the port of Valencia in Spain and COSCO shipping group. The article identifies state capitalisms as variegated and relational to analyze the ways in which qualitatively different state capitalist dynamics interact at different scales. The article identifies two state capitalist dynamics which have been dominant in determining relations between Spanish and Chinese state capitalisms: 1) A commercial dynamic of maximizing Spanish ports profits by establishing new relationships with Chinese firms; and 2) an expansionary dynamic of increasing market share of Chinese state-owned firms in European shipping markets. These two dynamics are synergistic and have contributed to the competitiveness of Spanish ports and Chinese shipping firms by providing new capital to the port of Valencia and expanding the port's profile as a hub in the eastern Mediterranean, while also further solidifying COSCO's position in European shipping markets and its internalization and vertical integration strateg

Environment and Planning A / 2023
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Experimental investigation on the nearshore transport of buoyant microplastic particles

Bjarke Eltard Larsen*, Mustafa Ali Abdullah Al-Obaidi, Hasan Gokhan Guler, Stefan Carstensen, Koray Deniz Goral, Erik Damgaard Christensen, Nils B. Kerpen, Torsten Schlurmann, David R. Fuhrman

This paper presents experimental measurements of beaching times for buoyant microplastic particles released, both in the pre-breaking region and within the surf zone. The beaching times are used to quantify cross-shore Lagrangian transport velocities of the microplastics. Prior to breaking the particles travel onshore with a velocity close to the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity, regardless of particle characteristics. In the surf zone the Lagrangian velocities of the microplastics increase and become closer to the wave celerity. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that particles having low Dean numbers (dimensionless fall velocity) are transported at higher mean velocities, as they have a larger tendency to be at the free-surface relative to particles with higher Dean numbers. An empirical relation is formulated for predicting the cross-shore Lagrangian transport velocities of buoyant microplastic particles, valid for both non-breaking and breaking irregular waves. The expression matches the present experiments well, in addition to two prior studies.

Marine Pollution Bulletin / 2023
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Decision support for the Technician Routing and Scheduling Problem

David Pisinger, Mette Gamst

The technician routing and scheduling problem (TRSP) consists of technicians serving tasks subject to qualifications, time constraints and routing costs. In the literature, the TRSP is solved either to provide actual technician plans or for performing what-if analyses on different TRSP scenarios. We present a method for building optimal TRSP scenarios, e.g., how many technicians to employ, which technician qualifications to upgrade, etc. The scenarios are built such that the combined TRSP costs (OPEX) and investment costs (CAPEX) are minimized. Using a holistic approach we can generate scenarios that would not have been found by studying the investments individually. The proposed method consists of a matheuristic based on column generation. To reduce computational time, the routing costs of a technician are approximated. The proposed method is evaluated on data from the literature and on real-life data from a telecommunication company. The evaluation shows that the proposed method successfully suggests attractive scenarios. The method especially excels in ensuring that more tasks are serviced but also reduces travel time with around 16% in the real-life instance. We believe that the proposed method could constitute an important strategic tool in field service companies and we propose future research directions to further its applicability.

Journal / 2023
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Blue Paradigms: understanding the intellectual revolution in global ocean politics

Bueger, Christian, Felix Mallin

The oceans have received extraordinary international attention in global policy and research. New insecurities and uncertainties, ranging from intensifying interstate disputes to persistent piracy and overfishing as well as to pollution, deoxygenation and climate change imply that the oceans are increasingly seen as being in crisis. This revolution in thinking about and addressing the oceans is driven by new ideas of why the oceans need political attention and care. In this article we demonstrate how four key new ‘blue paradigms’—maritime security, blue economy, ocean health and blue justice—have evolved and turned the oceans into a new area of priority. Each of these paradigms drives global ocean politics in different directions, which implies risks of fragmentation and conflicts. We work out the key differences between paradigms, investigating their underlying problematization, priorities and communities of practices involved. This provides a new map for navigating the complexity of global ocean politics useful for policy-makers and scholars. Thinking through paradigms also establishes a new analytical framework that allows for identifying conflicting priorities, tensions between ocean communities of practice, and ideas of how these can be managed. We conclude with a call for creative thinking of how synergies between the blue paradigms can be achieved in strategy, planning and research.

International Affairs / 2023
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Next Generation Supply Chain Management: The Impact of Cloud Computing

Britta Gammelgaard, Katarzyna Nowicka*

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of cloud computing (CC) on supply chain management (SCM).

The paper is conceptual and based on a literature review and conceptual analysis.

Today, digital technology is the primary enabler of supply chain (SC) competitiveness. CC capabilities support competitive SC challenges through structural flexibility and responsiveness. An Internet platform based on CC and a digital ecosystem can serve as “information cross-docking” between SC stakeholders. In this way, the SC model is transformed from a traditional, linear model to a platform model with the simultaneous cooperation of all partners. Platform-based SCs will be a milestone in the evolution of SCM – here conceptualised as Supply Chain 3.0.

Research limitations/implications
Currently, SCs managed holistically in cyberspace are rare in practice, and therefore empirical evidence on how digital technologies impact SC competitiveness is required in future research.

Practical implications
This research generates insights that can help managers understand and develop the next generation of SCM with the use of CC, a modern and commonly available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) tool.

The paper presents a conceptual basis of how CC enables structural flexibility of SCs through easy, real-time resource and capacity reconfiguration. CC not only reduces cost and increases flexibility but also offers an effective solution for disruptive new business models with the potential to revolutionise current SCM thinking.

Journal of Enterprise Information Management / 2023
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Large eddy simulation of a premixed dual-fuel combustion: Effects of inhomogeneity level on auto-ignition of micro-pilot fuel

Nemati, A., Ong, J. C., Zhang, M. & Walther, J. H.,

In a premixed dual-fuel (DF) methane-diesel engine, the ignition of the lean premixed methane/air mixture starts with the assistance of a pilot diesel injection. Auto-ignition of pilot fuel is important as it triggers the subsequent combustion processes. A delay in the auto-ignition process may lead to misfiring, incomplete combustion, and thus higher greenhouse emissions due to methane slip. Hence, a better understanding of the auto-ignition process for the pilot fuel can help to improve the overall engine performance, combustion efficiency, and to lower exhaust emission levels. In the present study, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to investigate the auto-ignition process of micro-pilot diesel in premixed DF combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC). The entire DF combustion processes including methane gas injection, methane/air mixing, pilot diesel injection, and ignition are simulated. The numerical model is validated against experimental data. The present numerical model is able to capture the ignition delay time (IDT) within a maximum relative difference of 7% to the measurements. A higher relative difference of 38% is obtained when methane gas injection and mixing are omitted in the simulation and the methane/air is assumed homogeneous. This demonstrates the importance of inhomogeneity pockets. To study the effects of temperature and methane inhomogeneities separately, different idealized inhomogeneities in temperature and methane distribution are considered inside the CVCC. The inhomogeneity in the temperature is observed to have a more profound influence on the IDT than the methane inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity pockets of temperature advance the first-stage ignition and, subsequently, the second-stage ignition. A sensitivity analysis on the effect of inhomogeneity wavelength reveals that the larger wavelengths enhance the combustion due to the presence of pilot diesel jets in the desirable regions for a longer time duration.

Fuel / 2023
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Numerical study of higher-harmonic wave loads and runup on monopiles with and without ice-breaking cones based on a phase-inversion method

Wei Shi*, Xinmeng Zeng, Xingya Feng, Yanlin Shao, Xin Li

Ice-breaking cones are commonly used in the design of marine structures in cold regions. This study investigates the effects of higher-harmonic wave loads and wave runup on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine with and without ice-breaking cones under extreme wave conditions on the Liaodong Peninsula in China. Two ice-breaking cones (upward-downward and inverted types) are considered. The numerical model adopts a two-phase flow by solving unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations using the volume of fluid (VOF) method. A phase decomposition method through a ‘Stokes-like’ formulation was adopted to obtain the parameters for each harmonics. The presence of the conical part is seen to increase the second-harmonic wave loads by up to 40%, but it has only limited influence on the fourth and fifth harmonics. The upward-downward-type ice-breaking cone increases the third harmonic, while the inverted-type ice-breaking cone decreases the third harmonic. Due to the phase difference between the first-harmonic and higher harmonics, the largest wave runup occurs at 0°, and 135° is the location with the smallest wave runup. This is because at the 135-degree location, the linear component is positive but the other nonlinear components are negative. For the 0-degree location, all harmonics are positive. By contrast, the inverted type has little effect. The high harmonic wave runup of the minimum point is backwards compared with that of the monopile, and most nonlinear wave runups are different upstream of the monopile.

Ocean Engineering / 2023
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Decentralized Service: An Initiation of Blockchain Value Creation into Service Science

Nico Wunderlich, Jan Schwiderowski, Roman Beck

How value is created through service has recently undergone massive changes. Centralized service provision with clear distinctions between service offerers and beneficiaries is increasingly being substituted by value creation within decentralized networks of distributed actors integrating digital resources. One of the drivers of this transformation is blockchain technology. Applying the lens of service-dominant logic and discussing examples of blockchain-based decentralized finance, we shed light on how properties of decentralized technology stimulate value creation in service ecosystems. With this conceptual research, we postulate five propositions of decentralized value creation along the axiomatic foundations of the service-dominant logic. We provide first definitions for decentralized service as well as decentralized service ecosystems. Thereby, we contribute with an extension of the service-dominant logic to the context of decentralized ecosystems. To our knowledge, this research is among the first to add to the growing literature on blockchain value creation from a service science perspective.

Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences / 2023
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Going offshore or not: Where to generate hydrogen in future integrated energy systems?

Juan Gea-Bermúdez*, Rasmus Bramstoft, Matti Koivisto, Lena Kitzing, Andrés Ramos

Hydrogen can be key in the energy system transition. We investigate the role of offshore hydrogen generation in a future integrated energy system. By performing energy system optimisation in a model application of the Northern-central European energy system and the North Sea offshore grid towards 2050, we find that offshore hydrogen generation may likely only play a limited role, and that offshore wind energy has higher value when sent to shore in the form of electricity. Forcing all hydrogen generation offshore would lead to increased energy system costs. Under the assumed scenario conditions, which result in deep decarbonisatiton of the energy system towards 2050, hydrogen generation – both onshore and offshore – follows solar PV generation patterns. Combined with hydrogen storage, this is the most cost-effective solution to satisfy future hydrogen demand. Overall, we find that the role of future offshore hydrogen generation should not simply be derived from minimising costs for the offshore sub-system, but by also considering the economic value that such generation would create for the whole integrated energy system. We find as a no-regret option to enable and promote the integration of offshore wind in onshore energy markets via electrical connections.

Energy Policy / 2023
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