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What Drives Ports Around the World to Adopt Air Emissions Abatement Measures?

Sornn-Friese, Henrik; Poulsen, René Taudal; Nowinska, Agnieszka Urszula; De Langen, Peter

The reduction of Greenhouses gasses (GHG) and other air emissions represents a major challenge for ports. The world over, however, ports vary considerably in their efforts to reduce air emissions, and the causes for this variation remain under-researched. This paper examines the drivers for the adoption of air emissions abatement measures in a sample of 93 of the world’s largest ports, covering all continents and mobile emitters. We test five hypotheses with a Linear Probability Model to disentangle the impacts of key port characteristics on the current adoption of abatement measures and identify three key drivers for adoption: Population density, the port landlord business model, and a specialization in servicing container shipping. We also find that ports are more likely to implement specific bundles of measures, in particular combining pricing and new energy sources. Our work has implications for ports, as we suggest that they should coordinate abatement efforts to achieve effectiveness in their work.

Transportation Research. Part D: Transport & Environment, Volume 90 / 2021
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Pragmatic ordering: Informality, experimentation, and the maritime security agenda

Bueger, Christian; Edmunds, Timothy

The question of when and how international orders change remains a pertinent issue of International Relations theory. This article develops the model of pragmatic ordering to conceptualise change. The model of pragmatic ordering synthesises recent theoretical arguments for a focus on ordering advanced in-practice theory, pragmatist philosophy, and related approaches. It also integrates evidence from recent global governance research. We propose a five-stage model. According to the model, once a new problem emerges (problematisation), informality allows for experimenting with new practices and developing new knowledge (informalisation and experimentation). Once these experimental practices become codified, and survive contestation, they increasingly settle (codification) and are spread through learning and translation processes (consolidation). We draw on the rise of the maritime security agenda as a paradigmatic case and examine developments in the Western Indian Ocean region to illustrate each of these stages. The article draws attention to the substantial reorganisation of maritime space occurring over the past decade and offers an innovative approach for the study of orders and change.

Review of International Studies, 47(2) / 2021
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Real-time deterministic prediction of wave-induced ship responses based on short-time measurements

Takami, Tomoki; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

This paper studies real-time deterministic prediction of wave-induced ship motions using the autocorrelation functions (ACFs) from short-time measurements, namely the instantaneous ACFs. The Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions (PSWF) are introduced to correct the large lag time errors in the instantaneous sample ACF, together with a modification of the autocorrelation (AC) matrix for ensuring its positive definiteness. The validity of the PSWF-based ACFs is first examined by using the ship motion measurements from model experiment under stationary wave excitations. It is shown that the use of PSWF-based ACFs leads to better prediction accuracy than direct use of sample ACFs. The validation is then extended to ship motion prediction using in-service data from a container ship, and an improvement of the prediction accuracy by PSWF-based ACFs is again found. Finally, the effectiveness of use of the instantaneous ACFs for non-stationary wave-induced responses is highlighted by comparing with the prediction results based on the ACFs from long-time measurements.

Ocean Engineering, Volume 221 / 2021
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The Role of Port Development Companies in Transitioning the Port Business Ecosystem: The Case of Port of Amsterdam’s Circular Activities

De Langen, Peter; Sornn-Friese, Henrik; Hallworth, James

There is a gradual but clear transition towards a circular economy (CE) that will potentially have significant impacts on ports, both in their function as transport nodes and as locations for logistics and manufacturing activities. A rough appraisal of new investments in circular manufacturing activities in ports in Europe drawn from organizational reports and official webpages illustrates the (slow) development of circular activities in ports. This paper is to our knowledge the first paper which deals with the implications of CE for the business model of the port development company. We assess if and how the circularity transition affects the role and business model of port authorities as developers of port clusters. We outline a framework for analyzing the consequences of CE on the business model of the port authority. We then apply this framework to get a detailed understanding of the emerging CE ecosystem in the Port of Amsterdam, which is clearly a frontrunner in the transition, and the role of the government-owned Port of Amsterdam port development company (PoA) in developing this ecosystem. In Amsterdam, a CE 'business ecosystem' has emerged and continues to evolve with three types of synergies between the companies in this ecosystem: logistics infrastructure and services synergies, input-output synergies and industrial ecology synergies. We find that the spatial scale of the CE value chains in the port varies between segments and that they are generally less international than 'linear' value chains. The development of CE activities occupies a central place in PoA's strategy, and PoA assumes new and active roles in advancing the circular business ecosystem, most notably through developing industrial ecology synergies and nurturing and attracting new, innovative CE companies. Finally, the circularity transition leads to changes in PoA's business model, with an increasing focus on new services that create synergies, and a decreasing importance of the share of port dues in the total revenue mix.

Sustainability, Volume 12 / 2020
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Blue crime: Conceptualising transnational organised crime at sea

Bueger, Christian; Edmunds, Timothy

Transnational organised crime at sea is a growing international concern. However, and despite its importance, the concept remains uncertain and contested. This ambiguity has led to a tendency to focus on individual challenges such as piracy or illegal fishing, rather than convergencies and synergies between and across issues, and has stymied a concerted international policy response. Debate continues over the term itself, what illicit activities it incorporates and excludes, and how these can be meaningfully conceptualised in ways that both recognise the diverse nature of the concept yet also provide a basis for an integrated response to the challenges it presents. In this paper, we address this lacuna by providing a systemic conceptualisation and analysis of transnational organised crime at sea. Our goal is to provide a firm basis for future enquiries on the different types of blue crime, to trace their distinct characteristics and identify how they intersect, and to consider what kinds of synergies can be built to respond to them. In so doing, we organise the nascent academic and policy discourse on blue criminology and maritime security to provide a new framework for navigating this complex issue for practitioners and analysts alike.

Marine Policy, Volume 119 / 2020
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Numerical analysis of methane slip source distribution in a four-stroke dual-fuel marine engine

Jensen, Michael Vincent; Cordtz, Rasmus Faurskov; Schramm, Jesper

We present the results of a numerical model which has been developed for estimating the contribution to the methane slip from different sources in a four-stroke dual-fuel marine engine running on natural gas. The model is a thermodynamic three-zone zero-dimensional full engine cycle model and considers methane slip contributions from short-circuiting, crevices and wall quenching. The model is applied to analyze the methane slip from a four-stroke dual-fuel medium speed marine engine using natural gas as primary fuel. At low loads, wall quenching is found to be the dominant contribution to the methane slip. At full load, the wall quenching contribution is comparable to the level of the short-circuiting and crevice contributions which only vary relatively little with load. At 75% load, the contribution from short-circuiting is highest. In addition, we found that in-cylinder post-oxidation of unburned fuel remaining after the main combustion is negligible.

Journal of Marine Science and Technology, volume 26 / 2020
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Benefit of speed reduction for ships in different weather conditions

Taskar, Bhushan; Andersen, Poul

Currently, the shipping industry is facing a great challenge of reducing emissions. Reducing ship speeds will reduce the emissions in the immediate future with no additional infrastructure. However, a detailed investigation is required to verify the claim that a 10% speed reduction would lead to 19% fuel savings (Faber et al., 2012).

This paper investigates fuel savings due to speed reduction using detailed modeling of ship performance. Three container ships, two bulk carriers, and one tanker, representative of the shipping fleet, have been designed. Voyages have been simulated by modeling calm water resistance, wave resistance, propulsion efficiency, and engine limits. Six ships have been simulated in various weather conditions at different speeds. Potential fuel savings have been estimated for a range of speed reductions in realistic weather.

It is concluded that the common assumption of cubic speed-power relation can cause a significant error in the estimation of bunker consumption. Simulations in different seasons have revealed that fuel savings due to speed reduction are highly weather dependent. Therefore, a simple way to include the effect of weather in shipping transport models has been proposed.

Speed reduction can lead to an increase in the number of ships to fulfill the transport demand. Therefore, the emission reduction potential of speed reduction strategy, after accounting for the additional ships, has been studied. Surprisingly, when the speed is reduced by 30%, fuel savings vary from 2% to 45% depending on ship type, size and weather conditions. Fuel savings further reduce when the auxiliary engines are considered.

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 85 / 2020
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A Literature Survey on Market-Based Measures for the Decarbonization of Shipping

Lagouvardou, Sotiria; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Zis, Thalis

This paper aims to conduct an updated literature survey on the Market-Based Measures (MBMs) currently being proposed by various member states and organizations at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) or by the scientific and grey literature as a cost-effective solution to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. Τhe paper collects, summarizes, and categorizes the different proposals to provide a clear understanding of the existing discussions on the field and also identifies the areas of prior investigation in order to prevent duplication and to avoid the future discussion at the IMO to start from scratch. Relevant European Union (EU) action on MBMs is also described. Furthermore, the study identifies inconsistencies, gaps in research, conflicting studies, or unanswered questions that form challenges for the implementation of any environmental policy at a global level for shipping. Finally, by providing foundational knowledge on the topic of MBMs for shipping and by exploring inadequately investigated areas, the study addresses concrete research questions that can be investigated and resolved by the scientific and shipping community

Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 3953 / 2020
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Energy Management of Hybrid Diesel/Battery Ships in Multidisciplinary Emission Policy Areas

Banaei, Mohsen; Ghanami, Fatemeh; Rafiei, Mehdi; Boudjadar, Jalil; Khooban, Mohammad Hassan

All-electric ships, and especially the hybrid ones with diesel generators and batteries, have attracted the attention of maritime industry in the last years due to their less emission and higher efficiency. The variant emission policies in different sailing areas and the impact of physical and environmental phenomena on ships energy consumption are two interesting and serious concepts in the maritime issues. In this paper, an efficient energy management strategy is proposed for a hybrid vessel that can effectively consider the emission policies and apply the impacts of ship resistant, wind direction and sea state on the ships propulsion. In addition, the possibility and impact of charging and discharging the carried electrical vehicles’ batteries by the ship is investigated. All mentioned matters are mathematically formulated and a general model of the system is extracted. The resulted model and real data are utilized for the proposed energy management strategy. A genetic algorithm is used in MATLAB software to obtain the optimal solution for a specific trip of the ship. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed energy management method in economical and reliable operation of the ship considering the different emission control policies and weather condition impacts.

Energies 2020, 13(16), 4179 / 2020
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A Comparative Analysis of Optimal Operation Scenarios in Hybrid Emission-Free Ferry Ships

Banaei, Mohsen; Rafiei, Mehdi; Boudjadar, Jalil; Khooban, Mohammad Hassan

The utilization of green energy resources for supplying energy to ships in the marine industry has received increasing attention during the last years, where different green resource combinations and control strategies have been used. This article considers a ferry ship supplied by fuel cells (FCs) and batteries as the main sources of ship's power. Based on the designers' and owners' preferences, different scenarios can be considered for managing the operation of the FCs and batteries in all-electric marine power systems. In this article, while considering different constraints of the system, six operating scenarios for the set of FCs and batteries are proposed. Impacts of each proposed scenario on the optimal daily scheduling of FCs and batteries and operation costs of the ship are calculated using a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model. Model predictive control (MPC) is also applied to consider the deviations from hourly forecast demand. Moreover, since the efficiency of FCs varies for different output powers, the impacts of applying a linear model for FCs' efficiency are compared with the proposed nonlinear model and its related deviations from the optimal operation of the ship are investigated. The proposed model is solved by GAMS software using actual system data and the simulation results are discussed. Finally, detailed real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation outcomes and comparative analysis are presented to confirm the adaptation capability of the proposed strategy.

IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification ( Volume: 6, Issue: 1, March 2020) / 2020
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