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Cost and time models for the evaluation of intermodal chains by using short sea shipping in the North Sea Region: The Rosyth-Zeebrugge route

López, Alba Matínez; Kronbak, J.; Jiang, Liping

This paper is framed in the context of the EU Interreg IVB North Sea Region project Food Port. In line with this project, this paper aims to define mathematically cost and time models able to provide realistic information about the performances of road haulage and of intermodal chains using short sea shipping (SSS) in the North Sea Region (NSR). The models integrate the necessary variables to establish the impact of different fleets and SSS features on the competitiveness of intermodal chains for the movement of food related goods. The models were applied to evaluate the opportunities for the success of intermodal chains using the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route. The results obtained validate the utility of the models and they suggest possible changes to the current operation of this SSS service in order to increase the marked potential possibilities for the intermodal chains through Rosyth-Zeebrugge.

International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics, Volume 7 / 2015
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Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body—the International Maritime Organization. Drawing on original empirical evidence and archival data, we introduce a four-factor framework to investigate two main questions: why is shipping lagging in its environmental governance; and what is the potential for the International Maritime Organization to orchestrate emerging private ‘green shipping’ initiatives to achieve better ecological outcomes? Contributing to transnational governance theory, we find that conditions stalling regulatory progress include low environmental issue visibility, poor interest alignment, a broadening scope of environmental issues, and growing regulatory fragmentation and uncertainty. The paper concludes with pragmatic recommendations for the International Maritime Organization to acknowledge the regulatory difficulties and seize the opportunity to orchestrate environmental progress.

Global Environmental Change, Volume 34 / 2015
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Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management: How Do Ship Management Models Influence Energy Efficiency?

Poulsen, René Taudal; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties.

Research in Transportation Business & Management, Volume 17 / 2015
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Environmental Balance of Shipping Emissions Reduction Strategies

Zis, Thalis; North, Robin Jacob; Angeloudis, Panagiotis

Maritime shipping is regarded as the most efficient mode of transport; however, its contribution to climate change through greenhouse gas emissions and the health issues related to shipping activity near residential centers cannot be neglected. In recent years, the efforts of regulators, ship operators, and port authorities have led to actions for ship emissions reduction to improve shipping's environmental performance. This work builds on an activity-based methodology that allows the estimation of emissions and examines environmental effects of slow steaming, fuel regulations, near-port speed-reduction schemes, and cold ironing. Pollutant emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and black carbon are modeled. A linear programming model minimizes fuel consumption through speed differentiation on a shipping line's routes based on fuel costs and binding regulations in each segment of the journey. Although the examined emissions-reduction actions may have a positive regional environmental effect by cutting emissions, it is possible that additional emissions are generated elsewhere because of increased sailing speeds beyond regulated areas. Trade-offs between pollutants are observed for reduction actions that may have a positive effect on some emission species but at the same time result in additional particulate matter and black carbon emissions. The presented framework allows key actors to conduct comprehensive studies and design improved emissions reduction actions with fewer negative impacts in other areas.

Transportation Research Record, 2015;2479(1) / 2015
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Marine Structures: Future Trends and the Role of Universities

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

This paper emphasizes some of the challenges and trends associated with the future development of marine structures. Its main focus is on ways to improve the efficiency of energy-consuming ships, and on design challenges related to energy-producing offshore structures. This paper also discusses the analysis tools that are most needed to enable sustainable designs for future ships and offshore structures. The last section of the paper contains thoughts on the role of universities in education, research, and innovation regarding marine structures. It discusses curriculum requirements for maritime-technology education, basic research activities, and international cooperation.

Engineering, Volume 1, Issue 1 / 2015
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Maritime routing and speed optimization with emission control areas

Fagerholt, Kjetil; Gausel, Nora T.; Rakke, Jørgen Glomvik; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive low-sulphur fuel when sailing inside ECAs. Since they are concerned about minimizing their costs, it is likely that speed and routing decisions will change because of this. In this paper, we develop an optimization model to be applied by ship operators for determining sailing paths and speeds that minimize operating costs for a ship along a given sequence of ports. We perform a computational study on a number of realistic shipping routes in order to evaluate possible impacts on sailing paths and speeds, and hence fuel consumption and costs, from the ECA regulations. Moreover, the aim is to examine the implications for the society with regards to environmental effects. Comparisons of cases show that a likely effect of the regulations is that ship operators will often choose to sail longer distances to avoid sailing time within ECAs. Another effect is that they will sail at lower speeds within and higher speeds outside the ECAs in order to use less of the more expensive fuel. On some shipping routes, this might give a considerable increase in the total amount of fuel consumed and the CO2 emissions.

Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 52 / 2015
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Dynamic vehicle routing problems: Three decades and counting

Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Wen, Min; Kontovas, Christos A.

Since the late 70s, much research activity has taken place on the class of dynamic vehicle routing problems (DVRP), with the time period after year 2000 witnessing a real explosion in related papers. Our paper sheds more light into work in this area over more than 3 decades by developing a taxonomy of DVRP papers according to 11 criteria. These are (1) type of problem, (2) logistical context, (3) transportation mode, (4) objective function, (5) fleet size, (6) time constraints, (7) vehicle capacity constraints, (8) the ability to reject customers, (9) the nature of the dynamic element, (10) the nature of the stochasticity (if any), and (11) the solution method. We comment on technological vis-à-vis methodological advances for this class of problems and suggest directions for further research. The latter include alternative objective functions, vehicle speed as decision variable, more explicit linkages of methodology to technological advances and analysis of worst case or average case performance of heuristics.

Networks, volume 67, Issue 1 / 2015
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Integrated Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem: Set partitioning models and computational results

Iris, Çağatay; Pacino, Dario; Røpke, Stefan; Larsen, Allan

Most of the operational problems in container terminals are strongly interconnected. In this paper, we study the integrated Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem in seaport container terminals. We will extend the current state-of-the-art by proposing novel set partitioning models. To improve the performance of the set partitioning formulations, a number of variable reduction techniques are proposed. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of different discretization schemes and the impact of using a time-variant/invariant quay crane allocation policy. Computational experiments show that the proposed models significantly improve the benchmark solutions of the current state-of-art optimal approaches.

Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 81 / 2015
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Fatigue strength of laser-welded thin-plate ship structures based on nominal and structural hot-spot stress approach

W. Fricke, H. Remes, O. Feltz; I. Lillemäe; D. Tchuindjang; T. Reinert; A. Nevierov; W. Sichermann; M. Brinkmann; T. Kontkanen; Bohlmann, Berend; L. Molter

To improve the energy efficiency, the demand for new light-weight solutions has been increased significantly in the last decades. The weight reduction of the current ship structures is possible using thinner plates, that is, plate thickness between 3 and 4 mm. However, at present this is, in normal cases, not possible due to the 5 mm minimum plate thickness requirement given by classification societies. The present paper investigates the fatigue strength of thin-plated ship structures. In the European research project BESST – ‘Breakthrough in European Ship and Shipbuilding Technologies’ – the extensive fatigue test programme was carried out for butt- and fillet-welded specimens, which were manufactured by the arc, laser and laser-hybrid welding methods. The test programme also covered the different production quality and thus a large variation of misalignments was included. Fatigue test results were analysed using the nominal as well as the structural stress approach, where the actual geometry of the specimens was taken into account. The results show that the present design S–N curve with slope value of 3 is applicable to thin plates, but it is slightly non-conservative. The fatigue test results for thin plates show better agreement with the slope value of 5. For thin plates and slender ship structures, the secondary bending stress due to angular misalignment plays an important part and changes in a non-linear way with the applied tension load. Therefore, it is important to consider the plate straightening effect in structural stress analysis.

Ships and Offshore Structures, 10:1 / 2015
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The economic speed of an oceangoing vessel in a dynamic setting

Magirou, Evangelos F.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Bouritas, Theodore

The optimal (economic) speed of oceangoing vessels has become of increased importance due to the combined effect of low freight rates and volatile bunker prices. We examine the problem for vessels operating in the spot market in a tramp mode. In the case of known freight rates between origin destination combinations, a dynamic programming formulation can be applied to determine both the optimal speed and the optimal voyage sequence. Analogous results are derived for random freight rates of known distributions. In the case of independent rates the economic speed depends on fuel price and the expected freight rate, but is independent of the revenue of the particular voyage. For freight rates that depend on a state of the market Markovian random variable, economic speed depends on the market state as well, with increased speed corresponding to good states of the market. The dynamic programming equations in our models differ from those of Markovian decision processes so we develop modifications of standard solution methods, and apply them to small examples.

Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 76 / 2015
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