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Reducing GHGs: the MBM and MRV Agendas

Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Woodall, Poul

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from ships, and review several distinct MBM proposals that were under consideration by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The chapter then moves on to discuss the concept of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of CO2 emissions and the distinct mechanisms set up the European Union (EU) and the IMO for MRV. The reason the MBM and MRV subjects are treated in the same chapter is twofold: (a) the MRV discussion essentially started when the MBM discussion was suspended in 2013, and (b) MRV is a critical step for any eventual MBM implementation in the future.

Book chapter in Sustainable shipping: A cross-disciplinary view / 2019
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Green Liner Shipping Network Design

Hellsten, Erik; Pisinger, David; Sacramento, David; Vilhelmsen, Charlotte

Green Liner Shipping Network Design refers to the problems in green logistics related to the design of maritime services in liner shipping with a focus on reducing the environmental impact. This chapter discusses how to more efficiently plan the vessel services with the use of mathematical optimization models. A brief introduction to the main characteristics of Liner Shipping Network Design is given, as well as the different variants and assumptions that can be considered when defining this problem. The chapter also includes an overview of the algorithms and approaches that have been presented in the literature to design such networks.

Book chapter in Psaraftis H. (eds) Sustainable Shipping / 2019
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European Policies for Short Sea Shipping and Intermodality

Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Zis, Thalis

This chapter discusses European policies as regards short sea shipping (SSS) and intermodality. To that effect, a broad perspective is mainly taken, as recently there have been numerous policy initiatives in Europe that deal directly or indirectly with both sectors. The chapter takes stock at the situation as regards European ports and SSS and discusses challenges and prospects for the future. The analysis looks into both ports and SSS in a strict sense and other factors that are related, directly or indirectly, and that may have important ramifications. These other factors include EU port deregulation, the role of rail transport, environmental regulations, sulphur regulations, port security, and others. The chapter tries to explain the causes of current problems, investigates cross-linkages and makes suggestions for possible improvements.

Book chapter in Short Sea Shipping in the Age of Sustainable Development and Information Technology Routledge / 2019
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Ports and the Circular Economy

De Langen, Peter; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

The ongoing shift toward a circular economy, in which end-of-life (EOL) products are reused, remanufactured, or recycled, has major implications for seaports, especially seaports in metropolitan areas, as in such areas, huge amounts of EOL products are available. Ports are therefore relevant locations for circular economy activities. This chapter identifies the main commodities in volume terms and the set of associated activities and assesses resulting opportunities and threats for ports. Case studies of Dutch ports are used to illustrate this analysis.

Book chapter in R. Bergqvist, & J. Monios (Eds.), Green Ports: Inland and Seaside Sustainable Transportation Strategies / 2019
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Navigation safety and risk assessment challenges in the High North

Marchenko, N.A.; Borch, O.J.; Andreassen, N.; Kuznetsova, S.Y.; Ingimundarson, V.; Jakobsen, Uffe.

The sea ice in the Arctic has shrunk significantly in the last decades. Partly as a result, the transport pattern has changed with more traffic in remote areas. This change may increase the risk of accidents. The critical factors are harsh weather, ice conditions, remoteness and vulnerability. In this paper we look into the risks of accidents in the Atlantic Arctic based on previous ship accidents and the changes in maritime activity. The risk has to be assessed to ensure a proper level of response in emergency situations. As accidents are rare, there are limited statistics available for Arctic marine accidents. Therefore, in this study a mostly qualitative analysis and expert judgement is the basis for the risk assessments. Implications for the emergency preparedness system of the region are discussed. The consequences of incidents depend on the incident type, scale and location,

Book chapter in in the High North. in A Weintrit (ed.), Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation / 2017
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Identification of Success Factors for Green Shipping with Measurement of Greenness Based on ANP and ISM

Ren, Jingzheng; Lützen, Marie

Green shipping as an emerging concept which aims to mitigate the negative environmental impacts caused by shipping activities has received more and more attentions recently. However, there is a gap in knowledge how to take the efficacious measures, which makes it difficult for the stakeholders of shipping activities to promote green shipping. In order to fill this gap, this chapter proposed a generic methodology for establishing a criterion evaluation system for greenness assessment of shipping, including the identification of the success factors, the development of some strategic measures, and the analysis of the measures for enhancing the greenness of shipping. A criterion evaluation system which consists of multiple criteria in five aspects including: technological aspect, economic aspect, environmental aspect, social aspect, and managerial aspect has been firstly established. Subsequently, Analytic Network Process (ANP) has been employed to determine the relative importance of these factors in green shipping with the consideration of the interdependences and interactions among these criteria for evaluating the greenness of shipping, and they have been ranked from the most important to the least. Accordingly, the key success factors for green shipping have been obtained. Then, some strategic measures for helping the stakeholders enhance the greenness of shipping have been proposed. Finally, Interpretative Structuring Modeling (ISM) has been employed to analyze the cause-effect relationships among these measures and the features of these measures.

Book chapter in P. T-W. Lee, & Z. Yang (Eds.), International Series in Operations Research and Management Science / 2017
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Green maritime transportation: Market based measures

Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from ships, and review several distinct MBM proposals that have been under consideration by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The chapter discusses the mechanisms used by MBMs, and explores how the concept of the Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) can be linked to MBMs. It also attempts to discuss the pros and cons of the submitted proposals.

Book chapter in Green Transportation Logistics: The Quest for Win-Win Solutions / 2016
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Da værfterne lukkede. Transformationen af den danske værftsindustri 1975-2015

Olesen, Thomas Roslyng

This book explores the transformation of Danish shipbuilding from 1975-2015. Specifically it expores the closure of B&W Shipyard in 1980, Nakskov Shipyard in 1986, Aalborg Shipyard in 1987-88, Burmeister and Wain Shipyard in 1996 and Danyard Frederikshavn in 1999. The author identifies 27 firms that were spun out during the closure of five Danish shipyards and finds that several of these firms were able to apply the inherent resources in new activities with more value added. The book also finds that the competencies of the redundant workers from the four shipyards were useful in other parts of the Danish labor market. The book sheds new light how internal and external factors influence the transformation of mature industries.

Syddansk Universitetsforlag / 2016
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Being green on sulphur: Targets, measures and side-effects

Kontovas, Christos A.; Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Stamatopoulou, Eirini

Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are not the only emissions of concern to the international transport community. SOx emissions are non-GHG emissions that are caused by the presence of sulphur in the fuel. As the maximum percentage of sulphur in automotive and aviation fuels is strictly regulated in most countries around the world, much of the attention in recent years has focused on maritime transport. The attention mainly stems from the fact that in marine fuels the percentage of sulphur can be very high: it can be as high as 4.5 % in Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), which is the fuel typically used in all deep-sea trades. Even though the amounts of SOx produced by ships are substantially lower than CO2, SOx emissions are highly undesirable as they cause acid rain and undesirable health effects in humans and animals. To mitigate these adverse environmental effects, the international shipping community has taken substantial policy measures. With the introduction of new limits for the content of sulphur in marine fuels in Northern European and North American sea areas, short-sea companies operating in these areas will face substantial additional cost. As of 1/1/2015, international regulations stipulate, among other things, a 0.1%limit in the sulphur content of marine fuels, or equivalent measures limiting the percent of SOx emissions to the same amount. As low-sulphur fuel is substantially more expensive than HFO, there is little or no room within these companies current margins to absorb such additional cost, and thus significant price increases must be expected. Unlike its deep-sea counterpart, in short-sea shipping such a freight rate increase may induce shippers to use landbased alternatives (mainly road). A reverse shift of cargo would go against the EU policy to shift traffic from land to sea to reduce congestion, and might ultimately (under certain circumstances) increase the overall level of CO2 emissions along the entire supply chain. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the potential effect of sulphur regulations on the share of cargo transported by the waterborne mode vis-à-vis land-based alternatives.

Book chapter in Psaraftis H. (eds) Green Transportation Logistics. International Series in Operations Research & Management Science / 2016
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The Role of National Shipping Policy: A Scandinavian Perspective on Shipping Policies in a Global Economy

Iversen, Martin Jes; Poulsen, René Taudal; Sornn-Friese, Henrik; Tenold, Stig
Book chapter in A. Chircop, S. Coffen-Smout, & M. L. McConnell (Eds.), Ocean Yearbook 29 / 2015
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