This chapter concerns the digitalization of the maritime sector with a specific focus on business models. It is the argument of the article that current research in Maritime Informatics is focused on technological optimizations and thus lacks a commercial aspect in order to grasp the importance of digitalization in the shipping sector. In order to fill this gap a business model framework is suggested in the article with focus on the level of respectively customer-based-value-propositions and land versus sea. Then follows the empirical case of the Danish shipping company Norden and the development from 2015 to 2020. Norden is a leading commercial operator of dry bulk and product tanker vessels with more than 350 vessels in operation. The conclusion of the case is that Norden so far has regarded digitalization as tool for decision taking processes, which in the long-term should lead to compete advantages in terms of more efficient decisions based on big data and advanced algorithms. The shipping company has on the other hand decided not to use digitalization for the development of new software products and in accordance to presented digitalization matrix focused on indirect value proposition for the customers rather than direct customer-based initiatives. This focus confirms the hypothesis that digitalization in the dry bulk and tanker segment will often be based on indirect value propositions while digitalization in container-shipping might have a more direct relation to specific customer-based value propositions. This distinction is linked to the business-to-business nature of dry bulk and tanker and the more mixed business to business/business to consumer nature of container shipping—in. particular when the container shipping is integrated to the value chains and thus moved closer to the ultimate customers’ preferences and services.
This PhD theis focuses on identifying the opportunities and challenges that on-board maintenance and practical operation of vessels poses in the development of autonomous ships. Inspired by the rapid development of autonomous vehicles considerable effort and interest is now invested in the development of autonomous ships. So far however, most of the research has focused on the legal aspect of unmanned vessels and on developing a system enabling a vessel to operate within the maritime collision regulation without human interaction. Specifically, the theisi looks into three research questions: (1) How is autonomous technology going to affect the workload required for operating and maintaining modern cargo vessels? (2) How is autonomous technology going to affect the operational patterns of the vessels? And (3) How is autonomous technology going to affect the reliability and utilization rate of the vessels?
The study is planned in cooperation between Svendborg International Maritime Academy (SIMAC) and University of Southern Denmark.
In 2021 DS Norden celebrated its 150 years anniversary. In this book Martin Jes Iversen is analyzing the history of the shipping company which is one of the oldest in Denmark. In the first 50 years after being founded in 1871, Norden was a pioneer firm in Danish shipping. This period was followed by five decades of financial stability and gradual stagnation. But in the early 1990s the firm started its journey to become one of the leading firms in the global dry-bulk market. As the world experienced technological, economical and political changes, Norden would also change. Some of these changes were incremental. Others were more abrupt. But they were never predictable.
This chapter provides first a discussion of how maritime security has been conceptualized and theorized and how the field has evolved. It discusses the more particular debates on dedicated maritime security issues: piracy, terrorism, smuggling, environmental crimes and the protection of critical maritime infrastructure. Although the oceans have featured occasionally in the literature on security, peace and development, it is fair to say that for decades scholars were suffering from what some have referred to as collective ‘seablindness’. A range of maritime insecurities have been extensively analysed. These include piracy; terrorism; various forms of smuggling; environmental crimes, hereunder illegal fishing; as well as a nascent literature on maritime critical infrastructures. With ongoing crises in different parts of the world’s oceans, maritime insecurity will continue to be recognized as one of the core dimensions of violence and insecurity. Maritime security also needs to be seen in the context of other international policy areas.
Maritime transport carries around 80% of the world’s trade. It is key to the economic development of many countries, it is a source of income in many countries, and it is considered as a safe and environment friendly mode of transport. Given its undisputed importance, a question is what does the future hold for maritime transport. This chapter is an attempt to answer this question by mainly addressing the drive to decarbonize shipping, along with related challenges as regards alternative low carbon or zero carbon marine fuels. The important role of maritime policy making as a main driver for change is also discussed. Specifically, if maritime transport is to drastically change so as to meet carbon emissions reduction targets, the chapter argues, among other things, that a substantial bunker levy would be the best (or maybe the only) way to induce technological changes in the long run and logistical measures (such as slow steaming) in the short run. In the
long run this would lead to changes in the global fleet towards vessels and technologies that are more energy efficient, more economically viable and less dependent on fossil fuels than those today. In that sense, it would have the potential to drastically alter the face of maritime transport in the future. However, as things stand, and mainly for political reasons, the chapter also argues that the adoption of such a measure is considered as rather unlikely.
Given the move toward automation, an increased focus on the liability for technical defects must be anticipated. This brings into play liability regimes that have traditionally been less used in the maritime area. One of these liability regimes is product liability. It is the purpose of this contribution to examine the implications of product liability rules in the maritime area, seen in light of the automation of ships.
The shipping industry is paramount for global economic growth by enabling the trading of enormous volumes of goods across the world. However, maritime transport is a huge and growing source of greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, the shipping industry is required to speed up its environmental transition towards a zero-carbon emissions fleet. Alternative marine fuels, in combination with ship optimization in realistic operating conditions, could be a solution to reduce the marine ship emissions drastically.
The emissions of harmful gases and particulates from the engine increase when the ship operates in waves. This phenomenon is particularity problematic for lean-burn natural gas engines because of the increased amount of unburnt methane emitted. The solution to this problem requires studying the interaction between the ship hydrodynamics and the engine dynamics. For this purpose, a coupled engine-shaft-propeller model capable of predicting its performance in waves needs to be developed. At the same time, evaluating the ship propulsion system performance in realistic operating conditions is essential to estimate the installed power of the main engine and to optimize the ship voyage.
The purpose of the present work is to investigate the interaction between propeller loads and engine response of a ship sailing in realistic operating conditions. First, an investigation was carried out to determine the propeller model necessary to estimate the propulsive forces in waves. Second, a coupled propeller-engine model was built to evaluate how the environmental effects influence the ship propulsion system performance in terms of propulsive forces and unburnt methane released in theatmosphere. Third, the effect of waves on the propulsive coefficients was studied by conducting numerical simulations and model experiments.
The traditional method applied to compute the propeller performance in waves, knownas the quasi-steady approach, was adequate to estimate the propulsive forces in realistic operating conditions. The simulations performed with the coupled engine-propeller model proved that neglecting time-varying wake field, ship motions,and propeller close-to-or-breaking water effects would lead to a poor prediction of the propulsive forces in waves. The coupled engine-propeller model allowed determining that the amount of unburnt methane released in the atmosphere considerably increases when the ship operates in waves. The investigation conducted on the propulsive coefficients showed that the effective wake fraction depends on both the propeller loading and the motions of the ship. An inverse non-linear correlation between the thrust deduction fraction and the propeller loading was observed. A small influence of the ship motions on the thrust deduction fraction was noticed. The propulsive efficiency was mainly affected by the variation of the open-water efficiency caused by the propeller loading. Therefore, using the propeller open-water curves or performing overload self-propulsion model-scale experiments in calm water would provide a sufficiently accurate estimation of the time-averaged propulsive efficiency in waves for the considered case studies.
The results of the PhD project are useful to investigate the performance of marine propulsion systems in realistic operating conditions. The techniques and tools employed in the current study can be directly applied in the ship propulsion optimization process to include the effect of waves. The work conducted in this research also constitutes a step towards the implementation of the liquefied-natural gas as a marine fuel.
This chapter assesses the role of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in ports and shipping. Insights from regulatory economics are used to identify industry characteristics under which the SOE model is expected to be effective. With the use of these insights, characteristics of ports, terminals and shipping services that may lead to the establishment of SOEs are identified. The empirical overview of SOEs in shipping and ports shows a rather large use of SOEs, especially in container terminal operations and port development. The use of SOEs particularly in port development can be well understood with insights from regulatory economics. The majority of SOEs in ports, terminals and shipping are active internationally. This raises important additional research questions, most importantly regarding the strategic rationale of SOE internationalization and the role of geopolitical considerations in international activities.
Among the spectrum of logistics – based measures for sustainable shipping, this chapter focuses on speed optimization. This involves the selection of an appropriate speed by the vessel, so as to optimize a certain objective. As ship speed is not fixed, depressed shipping markets and/or high fuel prices induce slow steaming which is being practised in many sectors of the shipping industry. In recent years the environmental dimension of slow steaming has also become important, as ship emissions are directly proportional to fuel burned. Win-win solutions are sought, but they will not necessarily be possible. The chapter presents some basics, discusses the main trade-offs and also examines combined speed and route optimization problems. Some examples are presented so as to highlight the main issues that are at play, and the regulatory dimension of speed reduction via speed limits is also discussed.