The purpose of this chapter is to present some basics as regards the energy efficiency of ships, including related regulatory activity at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and elsewhere. To that effect, the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) is first presented, followed by a discussion of Market Based Measures (MBMs) and the recent Initial IMO Strategy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. The discussion includes commentary on possible pitfalls in the policy approach being followed.
This chapter discusses European policies as regards short sea shipping (SSS) and intermodality. To that effect, a broad perspective is mainly taken, as recently there have been numerous policy initiatives in Europe that deal directly or indirectly with both sectors. The chapter takes stock at the situation as regards European ports and SSS and discusses challenges and prospects for the future. The analysis looks into both ports and SSS in a strict sense and other factors that are related, directly or indirectly, and that may have important ramifications. These other factors include EU port deregulation, the role of rail transport, environmental regulations, sulphur regulations, port security, and others. The chapter tries to explain the causes of current problems, investigates cross-linkages and makes suggestions for possible improvements.
Green Liner Shipping Network Design refers to the problems in green logistics related to the design of maritime services in liner shipping with a focus on reducing the environmental impact. This chapter discusses how to more efficiently plan the vessel services with the use of mathematical optimization models. A brief introduction to the main characteristics of Liner Shipping Network Design is given, as well as the different variants and assumptions that can be considered when defining this problem. The chapter also includes an overview of the algorithms and approaches that have been presented in the literature to design such networks.
The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from ships, and review several distinct MBM proposals that were under consideration by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The chapter then moves on to discuss the concept of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of CO2 emissions and the distinct mechanisms set up the European Union (EU) and the IMO for MRV. The reason the MBM and MRV subjects are treated in the same chapter is twofold: (a) the MRV discussion essentially started when the MBM discussion was suspended in 2013, and (b) MRV is a critical step for any eventual MBM implementation in the future.
In recent years the issue of sulfur emissions from maritime transport has seen newfound attention. This chapter presents an overview of the main issues of sulfur emissions and the legislative framework that seeks to reduce the sulfur footprint of the maritime sector. It also analyzes potential modal shifts toward less efficient land-based modes which may happen as a result of sulfur regulations and investigates the related potential economic damage to ship operators. To that effect, this chapter presents findings from a recently finished project at DTU and the developed methodological framework that can be used to estimate such modal shifts, as well as to measure the efficacy of policy and ship operators’ measures to reverse such shifts.
Among the spectrum of logistics – based measures for sustainable shipping, this chapter focuses on speed optimization. This involves the selection of an appropriate speed by the vessel, so as to optimize a certain objective. As ship speed is not fixed, depressed shipping markets and/or high fuel prices induce slow steaming which is being practised in many sectors of the shipping industry. In recent years the environmental dimension of slow steaming has also become important, as ship emissions are directly proportional to fuel burned. Win-win solutions are sought, but they will not necessarily be possible. The chapter presents some basics, discusses the main trade-offs and also examines combined speed and route optimization problems. Some examples are presented so as to highlight the main issues that are at play, and the regulatory dimension of speed reduction via speed limits is also discussed.
Ship collision and grounding events constitute a major hazard for ship operations, and ship collision risk analyses have to be carried out for installations such as offshore structures for extraction of hydrocarbons, offshore wind farms, and bridges spanning waterways. This book provides assessment procedures for ship collision and grounding analysis and includes probabilistic methods for collision and grounding risk assessment, estimation of the energy released during collisions, and prediction of the extent of damage on the involved structures.
The main feature of the book is that it encapsulates reliable and fast analysis methods for collision and grounding assessment and the methods have been extensively validated with experimental and numerical results. In addition, all the described analysis methods include realistic calculation examples so as to provide confidence in their use to eventually conduct the required assessment according to the rules and design codes. The book is intended as a handbook for professionals and researchers in the industry dealing with design and analysis of ships and offshore structures. The book can also be used as a text book for postgraduate courses orientated towards the design and analysis of ship and offshore structures.
Sustainable shipping involves not only ships but ports as their extension. This chapter examines the issues associated with a green port operation. These include technologies such as cold ironing; market-based practices such as differentiated fairway dues, speed reduction, and noise and dust abatement; and others. The legislative framework in various countries is explained, and various environmental scorecards are discussed. This chapter starts with a brief review on recent academic research in the field of environmental management of ports and presents the status quo in leading ports around the world. The chapter emphasizes on the implementation of speed reduction programmes near the port, the use of cold ironing at berth, and the effects of fuel quality regulation, considering the perspectives of the port authority and the ship operator. The emerging environmental and economic trade-offs are discussed. The aim of this chapter is to be a starting point for researchers seeking to work on green ports. Insights of this chapter may also be useful for stakeholders seeking to select the best emissions reduction option depending on their unique characteristics.
Green shipping as an emerging concept which aims to mitigate the negative environmental impacts caused by shipping activities has received more and more attentions recently. However, there is a gap in knowledge how to take the efficacious measures, which makes it difficult for the stakeholders of shipping activities to promote green shipping. In order to fill this gap, this chapter proposed a generic methodology for establishing a criterion evaluation system for greenness assessment of shipping, including the identification of the success factors, the development of some strategic measures, and the analysis of the measures for enhancing the greenness of shipping. A criterion evaluation system which consists of multiple criteria in five aspects including: technological aspect, economic aspect, environmental aspect, social aspect, and managerial aspect has been firstly established. Subsequently, Analytic Network Process (ANP) has been employed to determine the relative importance of these factors in green shipping with the consideration of the interdependences and interactions among these criteria for evaluating the greenness of shipping, and they have been ranked from the most important to the least. Accordingly, the key success factors for green shipping have been obtained. Then, some strategic measures for helping the stakeholders enhance the greenness of shipping have been proposed. Finally, Interpretative Structuring Modeling (ISM) has been employed to analyze the cause-effect relationships among these measures and the features of these measures.
The sea ice in the Arctic has shrunk significantly in the last decades. Partly as a result, the transport pattern has changed with more traffic in remote areas. This change may increase the risk of accidents. The critical factors are harsh weather, ice conditions, remoteness and vulnerability. In this paper we look into the risks of accidents in the Atlantic Arctic based on previous ship accidents and the changes in maritime activity. The risk has to be assessed to ensure a proper level of response in emergency situations. As accidents are rare, there are limited statistics available for Arctic marine accidents. Therefore, in this study a mostly qualitative analysis and expert judgement is the basis for the risk assessments. Implications for the emergency preparedness system of the region are discussed. The consequences of incidents depend on the incident type, scale and location,