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‘Containerization in Globalization’: A Case Study of How Maersk Line Became a Transnational Company

Sornn-Friese, Henrik

This chapter is a historical case study of Maersk Line, the world’s leading container carrier. Maersk Line’s global leadership was achieved within a relatively short time period and was the result of Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møllers decision in 1973 to enter container shipping—the biggest investment in the history of the AP Moller companies. When Maersk Line managed to achieve global leadership in a period of just about 25 years, the company’s own country offices were particularly important. They allowed the interconnection of three types of networks: The physical network of ships and routes, the digital network of information and communication systems and the human network of Maersk employees. The interaction between the vessels, the systems and the people is still at the core of the company today and central to its continued development.

Book chapter in N. P. Petersson, S. Tenold, & N. White (Eds.), Shipping and Globalization in the Post-War Era: Contexts, Companies, Connections / 2019
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Autonomous ships and product liability under the EU directive

Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf

Given the move toward automation, an increased focus on the liability for technical defects must be anticipated. This brings into play liability regimes that have traditionally been less used in the maritime area. One of these liability regimes is product liability. It is the purpose of this contribution to examine the implications of product liability rules in the maritime area, seen in light of the automation of ships.

Book chapter in H Ringbom, ER & TS (eds), Autonomous Ships and the Law. Routledge / 2020
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Being green on sulphur: Targets, measures and side-effects

Kontovas, Christos A.; Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Stamatopoulou, Eirini

Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are not the only emissions of concern to the international transport community. SOx emissions are non-GHG emissions that are caused by the presence of sulphur in the fuel. As the maximum percentage of sulphur in automotive and aviation fuels is strictly regulated in most countries around the world, much of the attention in recent years has focused on maritime transport. The attention mainly stems from the fact that in marine fuels the percentage of sulphur can be very high: it can be as high as 4.5 % in Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), which is the fuel typically used in all deep-sea trades. Even though the amounts of SOx produced by ships are substantially lower than CO2, SOx emissions are highly undesirable as they cause acid rain and undesirable health effects in humans and animals. To mitigate these adverse environmental effects, the international shipping community has taken substantial policy measures. With the introduction of new limits for the content of sulphur in marine fuels in Northern European and North American sea areas, short-sea companies operating in these areas will face substantial additional cost. As of 1/1/2015, international regulations stipulate, among other things, a 0.1%limit in the sulphur content of marine fuels, or equivalent measures limiting the percent of SOx emissions to the same amount. As low-sulphur fuel is substantially more expensive than HFO, there is little or no room within these companies current margins to absorb such additional cost, and thus significant price increases must be expected. Unlike its deep-sea counterpart, in short-sea shipping such a freight rate increase may induce shippers to use landbased alternatives (mainly road). A reverse shift of cargo would go against the EU policy to shift traffic from land to sea to reduce congestion, and might ultimately (under certain circumstances) increase the overall level of CO2 emissions along the entire supply chain. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the potential effect of sulphur regulations on the share of cargo transported by the waterborne mode vis-à-vis land-based alternatives.

Book chapter in Psaraftis H. (eds) Green Transportation Logistics. International Series in Operations Research & Management Science / 2016
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Da værfterne lukkede. Transformationen af den danske værftsindustri 1975-2015

Olesen, Thomas Roslyng

This book explores the transformation of Danish shipbuilding from 1975-2015. Specifically it expores the closure of B&W Shipyard in 1980, Nakskov Shipyard in 1986, Aalborg Shipyard in 1987-88, Burmeister and Wain Shipyard in 1996 and Danyard Frederikshavn in 1999. The author identifies 27 firms that were spun out during the closure of five Danish shipyards and finds that several of these firms were able to apply the inherent resources in new activities with more value added. The book also finds that the competencies of the redundant workers from the four shipyards were useful in other parts of the Danish labor market. The book sheds new light how internal and external factors influence the transformation of mature industries.

Syddansk Universitetsforlag / 2016
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Energy efficiency of ships

Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

The purpose of this chapter is to present some basics as regards the energy efficiency of ships, including related regulatory activity at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and elsewhere. To that effect, the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) is first presented, followed by a discussion of Market Based Measures (MBMs) and the recent Initial IMO Strategy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. The discussion includes commentary on possible pitfalls in the policy approach being followed.

Book chapter in Encyclopedia of Transportation SAGE Publications / 2019
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European Policies for Short Sea Shipping and Intermodality

Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Zis, Thalis

This chapter discusses European policies as regards short sea shipping (SSS) and intermodality. To that effect, a broad perspective is mainly taken, as recently there have been numerous policy initiatives in Europe that deal directly or indirectly with both sectors. The chapter takes stock at the situation as regards European ports and SSS and discusses challenges and prospects for the future. The analysis looks into both ports and SSS in a strict sense and other factors that are related, directly or indirectly, and that may have important ramifications. These other factors include EU port deregulation, the role of rail transport, environmental regulations, sulphur regulations, port security, and others. The chapter tries to explain the causes of current problems, investigates cross-linkages and makes suggestions for possible improvements.

Book chapter in Short Sea Shipping in the Age of Sustainable Development and Information Technology Routledge / 2019
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Green Liner Shipping Network Design

Hellsten, Erik; Pisinger, David; Sacramento, David; Vilhelmsen, Charlotte

Green Liner Shipping Network Design refers to the problems in green logistics related to the design of maritime services in liner shipping with a focus on reducing the environmental impact. This chapter discusses how to more efficiently plan the vessel services with the use of mathematical optimization models. A brief introduction to the main characteristics of Liner Shipping Network Design is given, as well as the different variants and assumptions that can be considered when defining this problem. The chapter also includes an overview of the algorithms and approaches that have been presented in the literature to design such networks.

Book chapter in Psaraftis H. (eds) Sustainable Shipping / 2019
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Green maritime transportation: Market based measures

Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from ships, and review several distinct MBM proposals that have been under consideration by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The chapter discusses the mechanisms used by MBMs, and explores how the concept of the Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) can be linked to MBMs. It also attempts to discuss the pros and cons of the submitted proposals.

Book chapter in Green Transportation Logistics: The Quest for Win-Win Solutions / 2016
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Green maritime transportation: Speed and route optimization

Psaraftis , Harilaos N.; Kontovas, Christos A.

Among the spectrum of logistics-based measures for green maritime transportation, this chapter focuses on speed optimization. This involves the selection of an appropriate speed by the vessel, so as to optimize a certain objective. As ship speed is not fixed, depressed shipping markets and/or high fuel prices induce slow steaming which is being practised in many sectors of the shipping industry. In recent years the environmental dimension of slow steaming has also become important, as ship emissions are directly proportional to fuel burned. Win-win solutions are sought, but they will not necessarily be possible. The chapter presents some basics, discusses the main trade-offs and also examines combined speed and route optimization problems. Some examples are finally presented so as to highlight the main issues that are at play.

Book chapter in Green Transportation Logistics: The Quest for Win-Win Solutions / 2015
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Green Ports

Zis, Thalis

Sustainable shipping involves not only ships but ports as their extension. This chapter examines the issues associated with a green port operation. These include technologies such as cold ironing; market-based practices such as differentiated fairway dues, speed reduction, and noise and dust abatement; and others. The legislative framework in various countries is explained, and various environmental scorecards are discussed. This chapter starts with a brief review on recent academic research in the field of environmental management of ports and presents the status quo in leading ports around the world. The chapter emphasizes on the implementation of speed reduction programmes near the port, the use of cold ironing at berth, and the effects of fuel quality regulation, considering the perspectives of the port authority and the ship operator. The emerging environmental and economic trade-offs are discussed. The aim of this chapter is to be a starting point for researchers seeking to work on green ports. Insights of this chapter may also be useful for stakeholders seeking to select the best emissions reduction option depending on their unique characteristics.

Book chapter in H. N. Psaraftis (Ed.), Sustainable Shipping: A Cross-Disciplinary View / 2019
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