Studies have indicated that transportation noise is associated with higher cardiovascular mortality, whereas evidence of noise as a risk factor for respiratory and cancer mortality is scarce and inconclusive. Also, knowledge on effects of low-level noise on mortality is very limited. We aimed to investigate associations between road and railway noise and natural-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Danish population. We estimated address-specific road and railway noise at the most (LdenMax) and least (LdenMin) exposed façades for all residential addresses in Denmark from 1990 to 2017 using high-quality exposure models. Using these data, we calculated 10-year time-weighted mean noise exposure for 2.6 million Danes aged >50 years, of whom 600,492 died from natural causes during a mean follow-up of 11.7 years. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for individual and area-level sociodemographic variables and air pollution (PM2.5 and NO2). We found that a 10-year mean exposure to road LdenMax and road LdenMin per 10 dB were associated with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of, respectively, 1.09 (1.09; 1.10) and 1.10 (1.10; 1.11) for natural-cause mortality, 1.09 (1.08; 1.10) and 1.09 (1.08; 1.10) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.13 (1.12; 1.14) and 1.17 (1.16; 1.19) for respiratory mortality and 1.03 (1.02; 1.03) and 1.06 (1.05; 1.07) for cancer mortality. For LdenMax, the associations followed linear exposure-response relationships from 35 dB to 60–<65 dB, after which the function levelled off. For LdenMin, exposure-response relationships were linear from 35 dB and up, with some levelling off at high noise levels for natural-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Railway noise did not seem associated with higher mortality in an exposure-response dependent manner. In conclusion, road traffic noise was associated with higher mortality and the increase in risk started well below the current World Health Organization guideline limit for road traffic noise of 53 dB.
In this study, the periodic train timetabling problem is formulated using a time-space graph formulation that exploits the properties of a symmetric timetable. Three solution methods are proposed and compared where solutions are built by what we define as a dive-and-cut-and-price procedure. An LP relaxed version of the problem with a subset of constraints is solved using column generation where each column corresponds to the train paths of a line. Violated constraints are added by separation and a heuristic process is applied to help to find integer solutions. The passenger travel time is computed based on a solution timetable and Benders’ optimality cuts are generated allowing the method to integrate the routing of the passengers. We propose two large neighborhood search methods where the solution is iteratively destroyed and repaired into a new one and one random iterative method. The problem is tested on the morning rush hour period of the Regional and InterCity train network of Zealand, Denmark. The solution approaches show robust performance in a variety of scenarios, being able to find good quality solutions in terms of travel time and path length relatively fast. The inclusion of the proposed Benders’ cuts provide stronger relaxations to the problem. In addition, the graph formulation covers different real-life constraints and has the potential to easily be extended to accommodate more constraints.
Global marine shipping annually accounts for about one billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear power propulsion may be an option to de-carbonise some niches of the merchant ocean fleet. This paper considers the three experimental nuclear-powered merchant ships launched and operated in the world so far; the iconic Savannah (USA), Otto Hahn (West Germany) and Mutsu (Japan). They were independently developed and operated in the 1960s and 1970s for technology demonstration and learning. A fourth ship, Sevmorput (Soviet Union/Russia, 1988–to date), is a pioneer in respect of its logistics functions and propulsion system. This paper develops a theoretical framework for the sustainability assessment of nuclear propulsion in ocean merchant shipping and presents a method for exploring nuclear propulsion, relative to flag state, ports, shipping resources and ocean transport services. The experimental ships’ transport efficiency is discussed and related to contemporary oil-fired shipping of general cargo, and to recent literature presenting possible future applications of merchant nuclear propulsion in some market niches. Insights provided include: (1) the experiments demonstrate that merchant nuclear propulsion may be technically feasible; (2) port and canal access for merchant nuclear-powered ships may be difficult and restricted; (3) the up-front costs, refuelling and end-of-life decommissioning costs of nuclear-powered ships are vast and uncertain against conventionally-powered ships; (4) because nuclear fuel is comparatively low-cost, the conventional oil-fired ship cost implications of high-speed operations do not apply.