Knowledge

Keyword: speed optimization

paper

The multi-port berth allocation problem with speed optimization: Exact methods and a cooperative game analysis

Bernardo Martin-Iradi, Dario Pacino, Stefan Ropke

We consider a variant of the berth allocation problem-i.e., the multi-port berth allocation problem-aimed at assigning berthing times and positions to vessels in container terminals. This variant involves optimizing vessel travel speeds between multiple ports, thereby exploiting the potentials of a collaboration between carriers (shipping lines) and terminal operators. Using a graph representation of the problem, we reformulate an existing mixed-integer problem into a generalized set partitioning problem, in which each variable refers to a sequence of feasible berths in the ports that the vessel visits. By integrating column generation and cut separation in a branch-and-cut-and-price procedure, our proposed method is able to outperform commercial solvers in a set of benchmark instances and adapt better to larger instances. In addition, we apply cooperative game theory methods to efficiently distribute the savings resulting from a potential collaboration and show that both carriers and terminal operators would benefit from collaborating.

Transportation Science / 2022
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Energy Efficiency in Ship Operations: Exploring Voyage Decisions and Decision-makers

Poulsen, René Taudal; Viktorelius Martin; Varvne Hanna; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara; von Knorring, Hannes

To mitigate climate change due to international shipping, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) requires shipowners and ship technical managers to improve the energy efficiency of ships’ operations. This paper studies how voyage planning and execution decisions affect energy efficiency and distinguishes between the commercial and nautical components of energy efficiency. Commercial decisions for voyage planning depend on dynamic market conditions and matter more for energy efficiency than nautical decisions do for voyage execution. The paper identifies the people involved in decision-making processes and advances the energy-efficiency literature by revealing the highly networked nature of agency for energy efficiency. The IMO’s current energy efficiency regulations fail to distinguish between the commercial and nautical aspects of energy efficiency, which limits the ability to mitigate climate change through regulatory measures. Policymakers should expand their regulatory focus beyond shipowners and technical managers to cargo owners to improve energy efficiency and reduce maritime transport emissions.

Transportation Research. Part D: Transport & Environment / 2022
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Speed optimizations for liner networks with business constraints

Reinhardt, Line Blander; Pisinger, David; Sigurd, Mikkel; Ahmt, Jonas

In 2018 the International Maritime Organization (IMO) agreed to cut the shipping sector’s overall CO2 output by 50% by 2050. One of the key methods in reaching this goal is to improve operations to limit fuel consumption. However, it is difficult to optimize speed for a complete liner shipping network as routes interact with each other, and several business constraints must be respected. This paper presents a unified model for speed optimization of a liner shipping network, satisfying numerous real-life business constraints. The speed optimization is in this research achieved by rescheduling the port call times of a network, thus, the network is not changed. The business constraints are among others related to transit times, port work shifts and emission control areas. Other restrictions are fixed times for canal crossing, speed restrictions in the piracy areas and desire for robust solutions. Vessel sharing agreements and other collaboration between companies must also be included. The modeling of the different restrictions is described in detail and tested on real-life data. The scientific contribution of this paper is threefold: We present a unified model for speed optimization together with numerous business constraints. We present a general framework for handling routes with different frequencies. Moreover, we present a bi-objective model for balancing robustness of schedules against fuel consumption. The tests show that the real-life requirements can be handled by mixed integer programming and that the model finds significant reductions of bunker consumption and cost for large-scale real-life instances.

European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 285 / 2020
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‘Swinging on the Anchor’: The Difficulties in Achieving Greenhouse Gas Abatement in Shipping Via Virtual Arrival

Poulsen, René Taudal; Sampson, Helen

The abatement of greenhouse gas emissions represents a major global challenge and an important topic for transportation research. Several studies have argued that energy efficiency measures for virtual arrival and associated reduced anchorage time can significantly reduce emissions from ships by allowing for speed reduction on passage. However, virtual arrival is uncommon in shipping. In this paper, we examine the causes for waiting time for ships at anchor and the limited uptake of virtual arrival. We show the difficulties associated with the implementation of virtual arrival and explain why shipping is unlikely to achieve the related abatement potential as assumed by previous studies. Combining onboard observations with seafarers and interviews with both sea-staff and shore-based operational personnel we show how charterers’ commercial priorities outweigh the fuel saving benefits associated with virtual arrival. Moreover, we demonstrate how virtual arrival systems have unintended, negative consequences for seafarers in the form of fatigue. Our findings have implications for the IMO’s greenhouse gas abatement goals.

Transportation Research. Part D: Transport & Environment, Volume 73 / 2019
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Speed Optimization vs Speed Reduction: the Choice between Speed Limits and a Bunker Levy

Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

“Speed optimization and speed reduction” are included in the set of candidate short-term measures under discussion at the International Maritime Organization (IMO), in the quest to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. However, there is much confusion on what either speed optimization or speed reduction may mean, and some stakeholders have proposed mandatory speed limits as a measure to achieve GHG emissions reduction. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light into this debate, and specifically examine whether reducing speed by imposing a speed limit is better than doing the same by imposing a bunker levy. To that effect, the two options are compared. The main result of the paper is that the speed limit option exhibits a number of deficiencies as an instrument to reduce GHG emissions, at least vis-à-vis the bunker levy option.

Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2249 / 2019
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A multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives

Wen, Min; Pacino, Dario; Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives. A branch and price algorithm as well as a constraint programming model are developed that consider (a) fuel consumption as a function of payload, (b) fuel price as an explicit input, (c) freight rate as an input, and (d) in-transit cargo inventory costs. The alternative objective functions are minimum total trip duration, minimum total cost and minimum emissions. Computational experience with the algorithm is reported on a variety of scenarios.

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment Volume 52, Part A / 2017
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The liner shipping berth scheduling problem with transit times

Reinhardt, Line Blander; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Sigurd, Mikkel; Vial, Guillaume T. P.

In this paper speed optimization of an existing liner shipping network is solved by adjusting the port berth times. The objective is to minimize fuel consumption while retaining the customer transit times including the transhipment times. To avoid too many changes to the time table, changes of port berth times are only accepted if they lead to savings above a threshold value. Since the fuel consumption of a vessel is a non-linear convex function of the speed, it is approximated by a piecewise linear function. The developed model is solved using exact methods in less than two minutes for large instances. Computational experiments on real-size liner shipping networks are presented showing that fuels savings in the magnitude 2–10% can be obtained. The work has been carried out in collaboration with Maersk Line and the tests instances are confirmed to be representative of real-life networks.

Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 86 / 2016
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Full-shipload tramp ship routing and scheduling with variable speeds

Wen, Min; Røpke, Stefan; Petersen, H.L.; Larsen,R.; Madsen,O.B.G.

This paper investigates the simultaneous optimization problem of routing and sailing speed in the context of full-shipload tramp shipping. In this problem, a set of cargoes can be transported from their load to discharge ports by a fleet of heterogeneous ships of different speed ranges and load-dependent fuel consumption. The objective is to determine which orders to serve and to find the optimal route for each ship and the optimal sailing speed on each leg of the route so that the total profit is maximized. The problem originated from a real-life challenge faced by a Danish tramp shipping company in the tanker business. To solve the problem, a three-index mixed integer linear programming formulation as well as a set packing formulation is presented. A novel Branch-and-Price algorithm with efficient data preprocessing and heuristic column generation is proposed. The computational results on the test instances generated from real-life data show that the heuristic provides optimal solutions for small test instances and near-optimal solutions for larger test instances in a short running time. The effects of speed optimization and the sensitivity of the solutions to the fuel price change are analyzed. It is shown that speed optimization can improve the total profit by 16% on average and the fuel price has a significant effect on the average sailing speed and total profit.

Computers & Operations Research, Volume 70 / 2016
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The liner shipping berth scheduling problem with transit times

Reinhardt, Line Blander; Plum, Christian E.M.; Pisinger, David; Sigurd, Mikkel M.; Vial, Guillaume T.P.

In this paper speed optimization of an existing liner shipping network is solved by adjusting the port berth times. The objective is to minimize fuel consumption while retaining the customer transit times including the transhipment times. To avoid too many changes to the time table, changes of port berth times are only accepted if they lead to savings above a threshold value. Since the fuel consumption of a vessel is a non-linear convex function of the speed, it is approximated by a piecewise linear function. The developed model is solved using exact methods in less than two minutes for large instances. Computational experiments on real-size liner shipping networks are presented showing that fuels savings in the magnitude 2–10% can be obtained. The work has been carried out in collaboration with Maersk Line and the tests instances are confirmed to be representative of real-life networks.

Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review Volume 86 / 2016
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Maritime routing and speed optimization with emission control areas

Fagerholt, Kjetil; Gausel, Nora T.; Rakke, Jørgen Glomvik; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive low-sulphur fuel when sailing inside ECAs. Since they are concerned about minimizing their costs, it is likely that speed and routing decisions will change because of this. In this paper, we develop an optimization model to be applied by ship operators for determining sailing paths and speeds that minimize operating costs for a ship along a given sequence of ports. We perform a computational study on a number of realistic shipping routes in order to evaluate possible impacts on sailing paths and speeds, and hence fuel consumption and costs, from the ECA regulations. Moreover, the aim is to examine the implications for the society with regards to environmental effects. Comparisons of cases show that a likely effect of the regulations is that ship operators will often choose to sail longer distances to avoid sailing time within ECAs. Another effect is that they will sail at lower speeds within and higher speeds outside the ECAs in order to use less of the more expensive fuel. On some shipping routes, this might give a considerable increase in the total amount of fuel consumed and the CO2 emissions.

Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 52 / 2015
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