Ship designers face increasing pressure to comply with global emission reduction ambitions. Alternative fuels, potentially derived from bio-feedstock or renewable electricity, provide promising solutions to this problem. The main challenge is to identify a suitable ship power system, given not only uncertain emission requirements but also uncertain fuel and carbon emission prices. We develop a two-stage stochastic optimization model that explicitly considers uncertain fuel and carbon emission prices, as well as potential retrofits along the lifetime. The bi-objective setup of the model shows how the choice of optimal power system changes with reduced emission levels. Methanol and LNG configurations appear to be relatively robust initial choices due to their ability to run on fuel derived from different feedstocks, and their better retrofittability towards ammonia or hydrogen. From a policy perspective, our model provides insight into the effect of the different types of carbon pricing mechanisms on a shipowner's decisions.
Denne guide indeholder 8 anbefalinger til, hvordan
den grønne omstilling i Det Blå Danmark kan understøttes. Guiden er baseret på tre forskningsrapporter
fra DPU, Aarhus Universitet udarbejdet med støtte
fra Den Danske Maritime Fond i årene 2019-2022. I
rapporterne kan du læse mere om baggrunden for
anbefalingerne. Ud over anbefalingerne indeholder
guiden også refleksioner fra repræsentanter fra Det
Blå Danmark. Guiden er lavet til dig, der arbejder
med grøn omstilling; uanset om det er som udstyrsproducent, i rederierne, på skibene eller for en offentlig organisation.
I søfart handler den grønne omstilling om en række
nye tekniske løsninger, eksempelvis nye drivmidler
til skibe og nye digitale teknologier. Men den er
mere end det. Den involverer også nye måder at organisere sig på og et nyt ’mindset’, dvs. nye måder
at tænke drift og vækst på. Formålet med den ene
af rapporterne – “Grøn omstilling i det Blå DanmarkVærdier og normer for handling”— var således at
kvalificere arbejdet med den grønne omstilling
ved at kortlægge de ord, som aktørerne i Det Blå
Danmark beskriver den grønne omstilling med, de
nye typer organisering, som omstillingen kalder på,
samt de ofte oversete kulturelle og sociale betingelser, der står i vejen for eller bidrager til den grønne
Ecosystems are viewed as important sources of innovation. While contracts, rules, policies, and industrial standards have been identified as important for coordinating and aligning inter-firm relationships, tools for the collective, collaborative orchestration of ecosystems have yet to be fully identified and articulated by scholars. The core contribution of this paper, the authors contend, is that corporate foresight tools, as applied at the level of the ecosystem, have the potential to orchestrate ecosystems. To this end, the authors examine the practical use of corporate foresight tools, in this case, roadmapping and scenario planning, as employed by ECOPRODIGI, an Interreg Baltic Sea project designed to advance the EU's strategy for eco-efficient Sustainable Blue Economy in the Roll-on/Roll-off (Ro-Ro) shipping ecosystem. Results demonstrate how ecosystem-level foresight significantly differs from traditional foresight centered around a focal firm. Corporate foresight tools, as applied to an ecosystem: 1) Target a diverse set of ecosystem actors beyond the segment's focal firm, including complementary firms, investors, and non-market actors; 2) Engage ecosystem actors, rather than only the focal firm, in shared strategy development based on a diverse mix of foresight tools; and 3) serve to orient and reify the ecosystem by charting the collective anticipation of innovations, policies, etc., in a shared set of future options. In the end, the authors find that corporate foresight tools operate as constitutive elements of ecosystems, that is, the tools help enact the ecosystem not as an abstract concept but as a shared, lived reality.
The European maritime transport policy recognizes the importance of the waterborne transport systems as key elements for sustainable growth in Europe. A major goal is to transfer more than 50% of road transport to rail or waterways within 2050. To meet this challenge waterway transport needs to get more attractive and overcome its disadvantages. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new knowledge and technology and find a completely new approach to short sea and inland waterways shipping. A key element in this is automation of ships, ports and administrative tasks aligned to requirements of different European regions. One main goal in the AEGIS project is to increase the efficiency of the waterways transport with the use of higher degrees of automation corresponding with new and smaller ship types to reduce costs and secure higher frequency by feeders and provide multimodal green logistics solutions combining short sea shipping with rail and road transport.
This article develops a micro-level theoretical perspective of business influence in international negotiations. By drawing on organizational institutional theory, the article proposes that site-specific institutionalized norms can structure the nature and extent of business power. The article illustrates the value of this perspective through an illustrative case study of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) through interviews and participant observation of on-site dynamics during negotiations on environmental shipping regulation. The article shows how, in the case of the IMO, specific institutionalized norms and beliefs structure private actors’ possible influence and their claims to authority. In particular, strongly held beliefs about the nature of political deliberation in the IMO both constrain and enable business interests, sometimes overriding the general structural power of the shipping industry. This research implies that future scholarship of business power and lobbying should be attentive to specific institutionalized ideas structuring business actors’ range of legitimate activities, in particular in international institutions where individual negotiation sites can develop idiosyncratic norms and beliefs about the legitimacy of private actor participation.
Even though that there has been increasing focus on the energy-efficient operation of vessels and that the knowledge of cost-effective improvements is widespread in the industry, energy-efficient operation is only a minor topic on board many working vessels. A significant reduction in fuel can be achieved through changes in the operational practices, but to establish a successful system for best practices within energy-management the installation of a decision support system is essential. This article presents a decision support system for working vessels to determine best practice for the reduction of fuel consumption. Requirements for the system are defined through interviews with crew and observations on board vessels. Case studies are used for illustrating the usefulness. The use of generators onboard is analyzed using the software. It is found that the generators are not running optimally, but the crew can use the software to re-organize and find the most fuel-efficient loading range for the generators on board.
The maritime sector is a key asset for the world economy, but its environmental impact represents a major concern. The sector is primarily supplied with Heavy Fuel Oil, which results in high pollutant emissions. The sector has set targets for deacrbonisation, and alternative fuels have been identified as a short-to medium-term option. The paper addresses the complexity related to the activities of the maritime industry, and discusses the possible contribution of alternative fuels. A sector segmentation is proposed to define the consumption of each sub-segment, so to compare it with the current alternative fuel availability at European level. The paper shows that costs and GHG savings are fundamental enablers for the uptake of alternative fuels, but other aspects are also crucial: technical maturity, safety regulation, expertise needed, etc. The demand for alternative fuels has to be supported by an existing, reliable infrastructure, and this is not yet the case for many solutions (i.e. electricity, hydrogen or methanol). Various options are already available for maritime sector, but the future mix of fuels used will depend on technology improvements, availability, costs and the real potential for GHG emissions reduction.
Unmanned and autonomous cargo ships may transform the maritime industry,
but there are issues regarding reliability of machinery which must frst be solved.
This paper examines the efect of voyage length on the reliability of machinery
with redundancy on unmanned ships. The limiting efects of dependent failures on
the improvement of reliability through the use of redundancy is also explored. A
strong relationship between voyage length and probability of independent failures
in systems with redundancy is shown. Increased redundancy can easily counteract
this negative efect of long unmanned voyages on reliability. Dependent failures,
however, are not afected by increased redundancy. The contribution of dependent
failures on the total probability of failure is found to easily exceed the contribution
from independent failures if even a slight proportion of the failures is dependent.
This has serious implications for unmanned ships where the possibility of corrective
maintenance is very limited and the consequences of mechanical failures on, e.g. the
propulsion of the ships can therefore be expected to be more severe than on conventionally manned ships. Redundancy in itself may not be enough to provide the reliability of machinery systems required for unmanned operation and other solutions
must therefore be found.
Led by the UN’s International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the EU, the shipping industry struggles to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to align with the Paris Agreement. Clean Cargo, the leading voluntary buyer–supplier forum for sustainability in the cargo shipping industry, developed some years ago a methodology to calculate and report the GHG emissions from containerships. The recently introduced carbon emission requirements by the IMO and EU have reinforced the members’ interest in a new Clean Cargo reporting mechanism that enables a more effective and efficient monitoring of the decarbonization progress. A better understanding of the user needs accompanied by due consideration to the regulatory environment and the technological advances are key to build this new framework. This paper builds on the case of the Clean Cargo initiative to (1) identify the stakeholders’ expectations and motivations for voluntary disclosure of environmental information, and (2) discuss the governance challenges of voluntary initiatives. A questionnaire was designed and deployed to investigate the current uses of Clean Cargo data and the information sharing among different stakeholders. Voluntary schemes can speed up the decarbonization process by proposing standards accepted by all actors of the global value chain. Clean Cargo members envision reporting on absolute GHG emissions per shipment as the way forward.
This paper aims to conduct an updated literature survey on the Market-Based Measures (MBMs) currently being proposed by various member states and organizations at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) or by the scientific and grey literature as a cost-effective solution to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. Τhe paper collects, summarizes, and categorizes the different proposals to provide a clear understanding of the existing discussions on the field and also identifies the areas of prior investigation in order to prevent duplication and to avoid the future discussion at the IMO to start from scratch. Relevant European Union (EU) action on MBMs is also described. Furthermore, the study identifies inconsistencies, gaps in research, conflicting studies, or unanswered questions that form challenges for the implementation of any environmental policy at a global level for shipping. Finally, by providing foundational knowledge on the topic of MBMs for shipping and by exploring inadequately investigated areas, the study addresses concrete research questions that can be investigated and resolved by the scientific and shipping community