Keyword: shipping


Optimizing Sulfur Emission Control Areas for Shipping

Lu Zhen, Dan Zhuge, Shuaian Wang, Harilaos N. Psaraftis

The design of emission control areas (ECAs), including ECA width and sulfur limits, plays a central role in reducing sulfur emissions from shipping. To promote sustainable shipping, we investigate an ECA design problem that considers the response of liner shipping companies to ECA designs. We propose a mathematical programming model from the regulator’s perspective to optimize the ECA width and sulfur limit, with the aim of minimizing the total sulfur emissions. Embedded within this regulator’s model, we develop an internal model from the shipping liner’s perspective to determine the detoured voyage, sailing speed, and cargo transport volume with the aim of maximizing the liner’s profit. Then, we develop a tailored hybrid algorithm to solve the proposed models based on the variable neighborhood search meta-heuristic and a proposition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology through extensive numerical experiments and conduct sensitivity analyses to investigate the effect of important ECA design parameters on the final performance. The proposed methodology is then extended to incorporate heterogeneous settings for sulfur limits, which can help regulators to improve ECA design in the future.

Transportation Science / 2024
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Propeller and Engine Performance of Commercial Windships: Benefits and Trade-Offs

Martina Reche Vilanova, Harry B. Bingham, Manuel Fluck, Dale Morris, Harilaos N. Psaraftis

Wind propulsion systems (WPS) for commercial ships can be a key ingredient to achieving the IMO green targets. Most WPS installations will operate in conjunction with propellers and marine engines in a hybrid mode, which will affect their performance. The present paper presents the development of a generic, fast, and easy tool to predict the propeller and engine performance variation, along with the cost, as a function of the wind power installed in two operation conditions: fixed ship speed and constant shaft speed. Specific focus is directed toward showing generic trends and trade-offs that inform economic decision-making. To this end, a key feature of the presented work is the ability to assess the cost–benefit of both controllable pitch propellers and fixed pitch propellers (CPPs and FPPs). This provides advice on when, in terms of WPS installation size, it is worthwhile to install which kind of propeller. CPPs are found to be more suitable for newly built wind-powered ships (>70% wind power), while a conventional FPP is satisfactory for wind-assisted ships (<70% wind power) and retrofitted installations. The results for a 91,373 GT bulk carrier showed that a WPS unloads the propeller and the engine, which leads to an increase in the propulsive efficiency and a detrimental rise of the engine specific fuel oil consumption. However, propeller gains are found to be greater than engine losses, which result in extra savings. Thus, not only does a WPS save fuel and corresponding pollutant emissions, but it also increases the entire propulsive efficiency.

Journal of Ship Research / 2024
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Shipping Legitimacy and Identity: The Danish Maritime Museum, 1915 and 2013

Anders Ravn Sørensen

In this article, the author describes how the creation of the Danish maritime museums in 1915 and 2013 – both generously funded by maritime foundations and actors – was perceived by the shipping industry as initiatives that would help market the industry in the eyes of the public. He argues more generally that national maritime museums constitute focal points for disseminating narratives that legitimate maritime activities and establish these activities as symbols of national identities. It is suggested that maritime historians, curators and scholars reflect on the relationship between maritime industry actors and museum exhibition narratives, and consider the interests and capital that potentially underpin museums’ and curators’ decisions.

International Journal of Maritime History / 2023
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Optimal ship lifetime fuel and power system selection under uncertainty

Benjamin Lagemann*, Sotiria Lagouvardou, Elizabeth Lindstad, Kjetil Fagerholt, Harilaos N. Psaraftis, Stein Ove Erikstad

Ship designers face increasing pressure to comply with global emission reduction ambitions. Alternative fuels, potentially derived from bio-feedstock or renewable electricity, provide promising solutions to this problem. The main challenge is to identify a suitable ship power system, given not only uncertain emission requirements but also uncertain fuel and carbon emission prices. We develop a two-stage stochastic optimization model that explicitly considers uncertain fuel and carbon emission prices, as well as potential retrofits along the lifetime. The bi-objective setup of the model shows how the choice of optimal power system changes with reduced emission levels. Methanol and LNG configurations appear to be relatively robust initial choices due to their ability to run on fuel derived from different feedstocks, and their better retrofittability towards ammonia or hydrogen. From a policy perspective, our model provides insight into the effect of the different types of carbon pricing mechanisms on a shipowner's decisions.

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment / 2023
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Counter-piracy law in practice: An ethnography of international security governance

Jessica Larsen

In a new book, senior researcher Jessica Larsen analyses how relevant anti-piracy legislation was enforced when international ship contributions and regional coastal states cooperated on anti-piracy off the coast of Somalia in 2008-2016.

The book is a socio-legal study based on both clause analyses and ethnographic fieldwork. The book takes the reader on board a warship patrolling the Indian Ocean and into the courtrooms of the island nation of Seychelles, which conducted 17 piracy cases. Through interviews and observations, the book uncovers how anti-piracy legislation works in practice. Existing studies have primarily examined existing law. This book goes out into the field to also uncover applied law.

The analysis shows examples of ambiguity about which legal sources should be applied at sea. It identifies practices in court that show cases of impunity and questions legal certainty. The implications of this should be considered as counter-piracy off Somalia has been used as a model for counter-piracy elsewhere, such as in the Gulf of Guinea.

Routledge / 2023
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Kan Det Blå Danmark Blive Grønt? Otte anbefalinger der understøtter den grøn omstilling

Nanna Thit, Jakob Krause-Jensen, Bettina Skårup

Denne guide indeholder 8 anbefalinger til, hvordan
den grønne omstilling i Det Blå Danmark kan understøttes. Guiden er baseret på tre forskningsrapporter
fra DPU, Aarhus Universitet udarbejdet med støtte
fra Den Danske Maritime Fond i årene 2019-2022. I
rapporterne kan du læse mere om baggrunden for
anbefalingerne. Ud over anbefalingerne indeholder
guiden også refleksioner fra repræsentanter fra Det
Blå Danmark. Guiden er lavet til dig, der arbejder
med grøn omstilling; uanset om det er som udstyrsproducent, i rederierne, på skibene eller for en offentlig organisation.
I søfart handler den grønne omstilling om en række
nye tekniske løsninger, eksempelvis nye drivmidler
til skibe og nye digitale teknologier. Men den er
mere end det. Den involverer også nye måder at organisere sig på og et nyt ’mindset’, dvs. nye måder
at tænke drift og vækst på. Formålet med den ene
af rapporterne – “Grøn omstilling i det Blå DanmarkVærdier og normer for handling”— var således at
kvalificere arbejdet med den grønne omstilling
ved at kortlægge de ord, som aktørerne i Det Blå
Danmark beskriver den grønne omstilling med, de
nye typer organisering, som omstillingen kalder på,
samt de ofte oversete kulturelle og sociale betingelser, der står i vejen for eller bidrager til den grønne

DPU, Aarhus Universitet / 2022
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Business ecosystems and the view from the future: The use of corporate foresight by stakeholders of the Ro-Ro shipping ecosystem in the Baltic Sea Region

Matthew J. Spaniol*, Nicholas James Rowland

Ecosystems are viewed as important sources of innovation. While contracts, rules, policies, and industrial standards have been identified as important for coordinating and aligning inter-firm relationships, tools for the collective, collaborative orchestration of ecosystems have yet to be fully identified and articulated by scholars. The core contribution of this paper, the authors contend, is that corporate foresight tools, as applied at the level of the ecosystem, have the potential to orchestrate ecosystems. To this end, the authors examine the practical use of corporate foresight tools, in this case, roadmapping and scenario planning, as employed by ECOPRODIGI, an Interreg Baltic Sea project designed to advance the EU's strategy for eco-efficient Sustainable Blue Economy in the Roll-on/Roll-off (Ro-Ro) shipping ecosystem. Results demonstrate how ecosystem-level foresight significantly differs from traditional foresight centered around a focal firm. Corporate foresight tools, as applied to an ecosystem: 1) Target a diverse set of ecosystem actors beyond the segment's focal firm, including complementary firms, investors, and non-market actors; 2) Engage ecosystem actors, rather than only the focal firm, in shared strategy development based on a diverse mix of foresight tools; and 3) serve to orient and reify the ecosystem by charting the collective anticipation of innovations, policies, etc., in a shared set of future options. In the end, the authors find that corporate foresight tools operate as constitutive elements of ecosystems, that is, the tools help enact the ecosystem not as an abstract concept but as a shared, lived reality.

Technological Forecasting and Social Change / 2022
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Development of an advanced, efficient and green intermodal system with autonomous inland and short sea shipping – AEGIS

S. Krause*, L. Wurzler, O. E. Mørkrid, K. Fjørtoft, H. N. Psaraftis, M. R. Vilanova, T. Zis, N. F. Coelho, J. Van Tatenhove, J. Raakjær, K. Kloch, M. B. Billesø, J. N. Kristiansen

The European maritime transport policy recognizes the importance of the waterborne transport systems as key elements for sustainable growth in Europe. A major goal is to transfer more than 50% of road transport to rail or waterways within 2050. To meet this challenge waterway transport needs to get more attractive and overcome its disadvantages. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new knowledge and technology and find a completely new approach to short sea and inland waterways shipping. A key element in this is automation of ships, ports and administrative tasks aligned to requirements of different European regions. One main goal in the AEGIS project is to increase the efficiency of the waterways transport with the use of higher degrees of automation corresponding with new and smaller ship types to reduce costs and secure higher frequency by feeders and provide multimodal green logistics solutions combining short sea shipping with rail and road transport.

Journal of Physics: Conference Series / 2022
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Navigating Norms and Invisible Rules: Explaining the Case of Business influence in International Shipping Regulation

Christian Hendriksen*

This article develops a micro-level theoretical perspective of business influence in international negotiations. By drawing on organizational institutional theory, the article proposes that site-specific institutionalized norms can structure the nature and extent of business power. The article illustrates the value of this perspective through an illustrative case study of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) through interviews and participant observation of on-site dynamics during negotiations on environmental shipping regulation. The article shows how, in the case of the IMO, specific institutionalized norms and beliefs structure private actors’ possible influence and their claims to authority. In particular, strongly held beliefs about the nature of political deliberation in the IMO both constrain and enable business interests, sometimes overriding the general structural power of the shipping industry. This research implies that future scholarship of business power and lobbying should be attentive to specific institutionalized ideas structuring business actors’ range of legitimate activities, in particular in international institutions where individual negotiation sites can develop idiosyncratic norms and beliefs about the legitimacy of private actor participation.

Business and Politics / 2022
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A Modular Working Vessel Decision Support System for Fuel Consumption Reduction

Jan Corfixen Sørensen*, Marie Lützen, Stig Eriksen, Jens Brauchli Jensen

Even though that there has been increasing focus on the energy-efficient operation of vessels and that the knowledge of cost-effective improvements is widespread in the industry, energy-efficient operation is only a minor topic on board many working vessels. A significant reduction in fuel can be achieved through changes in the operational practices, but to establish a successful system for best practices within energy-management the installation of a decision support system is essential. This article presents a decision support system for working vessels to determine best practice for the reduction of fuel consumption. Requirements for the system are defined through interviews with crew and observations on board vessels. Case studies are used for illustrating the usefulness. The use of generators onboard is analyzed using the software. It is found that the generators are not running optimally, but the crew can use the software to re-organize and find the most fuel-efficient loading range for the generators on board.

International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making / 2022
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