Decentralization of the electricity sector has mainly been studied in relation to its infrastructural aspect, particularly location and size of the generation units, and only recently more attention has been paid to the governance aspects. This article examines power sector (de)centralization operationalized along three functional dimensions: political, administrative and economic. We apply this framework to empirically assess the changes in California’s electricity market, which saw the emergence of institutional innovation in the form of community choice aggregation (CCA). Unpacking the Californian case illustrates how decision-making has moved from central state government and regulators to the municipal level in uneven ways and without decentralized generation keeping pace. We also explore the impacts this multidimensional and diversified decentralization has on the ultimate goals of energy transition: decarbonization and energy security. Our framework and empirical findings challenge the conventional view on decentralization and problematize the widespread assumptions of its positive influence on climate mitigation and grid stability.
In this paper, a novel configuration of a pumped thermal electricity storage system is proposed which can integrate excess thermal energy from different renewable thermal energy sources, e.g. concentrated solar power, waste heat and deep geothermal energy plants, as well as excess electricity from direct electricity generating renewable energy sources, e.g. solar photovoltaic and wind energy plants. The proposed configuration can also be used as a retrofit option to existing conventional fossil fuel-based power plants. A conventional two-tank sensible heat storage is used as a thermal energy storage system that can be charged using direct renewable thermal energy and using a heat pump utilizing excess electricity. Different discharging cycles, including a Joule–Brayton system and a conventional steam Rankine cycle system, can be used. The proposed system can achieve a higher capacity factor compared to those of stand-alone plants.
As a case study, a conventional two-tank molten salt-based thermal energy storage system integrating concentrated solar power, considering a heliostat system, and a solar photovoltaic plant is investigated. The overall operational strategy of the plant was developed and based on that annual simulations were performed for a selected configuration. The results of the case study suggest that for a given requirement of capacity factor, the final selection of the capacities of the solar photovoltaic plant, heat pump and heliostat field should be done based on the minimum levelized cost of energy. Moreover, for high capacity factor requirements, the proposed configuration is promising.
This report provides a summary on the prospects for developing offshore logistics hubs and their evaluation as opportunities for the maritime and offshore industries. The report’s findings are based on respondents’ answers to surveys and focuses on when offshore logistic hubs will come into operation and their business potential. The data for this report is based on desk research and an analysis of survey responses. The report is produced by the PERISCOPE network.
This report provides an assessment on the prospects for offshore energy hubs. Four use cases have been developed and evaluated by respondents in a survey instrument for their forecasted time horizon to implementation and their business potential as opportunities for the maritime and offshore
industries. The report is produced by the PERISCOPE Group at Aarhus University for the PERISCOPE network.
This report provides an assessment on the prospects for the microgrids at large ports. A survey has been developed to this end and has been evaluated by respondents to crowdsource a forecasted time horizon to implementation and its potential as an opportunity for the maritime and offshore industries. The report is produced by the PERISCOPE Group at Aarhus University for the PERISCOPE network.