Keyword: port infrastructure


Prospects of cold ironing as an emissions reduction option

Zis, Thalis

Cold ironing is the process of providing shorepower to cover the energy demands of ships calling at ports. This technological solution can eliminate the emissions of auxiliary engines at berth, resulting in a global reduction of emissions if the grid powering the ships is an environmentally friendly energy source. This paper conducts a literature review of recent academic work in the field and presents the status of this technology worldwide and the current barriers for its further implementation. The use of cold ironing is mandatory in Californian ports for ship operators and as a result terminal and ship operators were required to invest in this technology. In Europe, all ports will be required to have cold ironing provision by the end of 2025. Other regulations that target local emissions such as Emission Control Areas can have a significant impact on whether cold ironing is used in the future as a potential compliance solution. This paper constructs a quantitative framework for the examination of the technology considering all stakeholders. The role of regulation is shown to be critical for the further adoption of this technology. Illustrative case studies are presented that consider the perspective of ship operators of various ship types, and terminal operators that opt to invest in shorepower facilities. The results of the case studies show that for medium and high fuel price scenarios there is economic motivation for ship operators to use cold ironing. For the port, the cost per abated ton of pollutants is much lower than current estimates of the external costs of pollutants. Therefore, shorepower may be a viable emissions reduction option for the maritime sector, provided that regulatory bodies assist the further adoption of the technology from ship operators and ports. The methodology can be useful to port and ship operators in examining the benefits of using cold ironing as an emissions reduction action.

Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 119 / 2019
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Evaluation of cold ironing and speed reduction policies to reduce ship emissions near and at ports

Zis, Thalis; North, Robin Jacob; Angeloudis, Panagiotis; Ochieng, Washington Yotto; Bell, Michael Geoffrey Harrison

Different port operating policies have the potential to reduce emissions from shipping; however, their efficacy varies for different ports. This article extends existing literature to present a consistent and transferable methodology that examines emissions reduction port policies based on ship-call data. Carbon dioxide (CO2); sulphur dioxide (SO2); nitrogen oxides (NOx); and black carbon (BC) emissions from near-port containership activities are estimated. Two emissions reduction policies are considered for typical container terminals. Participation of all calling vessels with a speed reduction scheme can lead to reductions of 8–20 per cent, 9–40 per cent and 9–17 per cent for CO2, SO2 and NOx, respectively. However, speed reduction policies may increase BC emissions by up to 10 per cent. Provision of Alternative Marine Power (AMP) for all berthing vessels can reduce in-port emissions by 48–70 per cent, 3–60 per cent, 40–60 per cent and 57–70 per cent for CO2, SO2, NOx and BC, respectively. The analysis shows that emissions depend on visiting fleet, berthing durations, baseline operating pattern of calling ships, sulphur reduction policies in force and the emissions intensity of electricity supply. The potential of emissions reduction policies varies considerably across ports making imperative the evaluation and prioritization of such policies based on the unique characteristics of each port and each vessel.

Maritime Economics & Logistics, volume 16 / 2014
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