Offshore grids can play key roles in the transition of energy systems toward sustainability. Although they require extensive infrastructure investments, they allow for the exploitation of additional resources and may be important in providing for part of the increasing electricity demands driven by sector coupling. This paper quantifies the socioeconomic value of offshore grids and identifies their major drivers, performing energy system optimization in a model application of the northern–central European energy system and the North Sea offshore grid towards 2050. The increasing wake loss with the sizes of hub-connected wind farms is integrated in the modeling. We find that without sector coupling no offshore grid may develop, and that the higher the level of sector coupling, the higher the value of offshore grids. Therefore, it can be strongly stated that offshore grid infrastructure development should not be discussed as a separate political topic, but seen in connection to sector coupling.
The number of marine scrubbers installed in industry has been on the rise over the past decade and is expected to continue in the coming years. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that the design of the scrubbers enables as an efficient operation as possible. In this study, an optimization of the exhaust cover inside an in-line scrubber was carried out. The optimization was done by combining a computational fluid dynamics model working on a simplified geometry with the method of feasible directions in order to reduce the pressure loss caused by the exhaust cover. The design is constrained in both height and width of the points making up the exhaust cover to ensure proper drainage of water and to avoid invalid designs. It was found that the optimized design reduced the pressure loss by 42% compared to the initial design. Furthermore, the scalability of the original design was investigated with the same height constraint enforced on the design variables. The result of the scalability analysis showed that the radius of the exhaust cover for the optimal designs scales linearly with the diameter of the scrubber, while the pressure loss was found to increase quadratically as the diameter of the scrubber increases.
In this podcast, Martina Reche Vilanova explains about her research on wind propulsion on commercial ships. Martina is an industrial PhD at DTU and North sails and part of the Maritime Research Alliance PhD network.
In this video, Associate Professor René Taudal Poulsen (Copenhagen Business School) presents the key findings from an international research project on port call optimization in tanker shipping. The session is developed in collaboration with MARLOG.
Sustainable biofuel supply chain is a key to sustainable manufacturing and the future of production. Greener production is now becoming an order qualifier for the global competition. Modeling biofuel supply chains that achieve economic, social, and environmental feasibility is a challenge. This article develops biofuel platform planning and optimization that unifies biofuel product, production process and networks design into an umbrella of sustainable supply chain planning. A design of biofuel supply chain networks under various production paths is considered. The modeling results show that an optimum region of composition ratio between rice straws and waste cooking oils can be set within the range from 0% to 50%. Bio-diesel is favored over ethanol by occupying over 40% of the total biofuel outputs. However, ethanol yield is 99.1% and therefore it is sufficient to be directly mixed with gasoline at final depots. In terms of social contribution, it is estimated that the supply chain contribution to the case country GDP is about 0.17%. Looking at the above statistics, future research on global economic impacts and competitiveness of biofuel production is suggested.
Due to increasing container traffic and mega-ships, many seaports face challenges of huge amounts of truck arrivals and congestion problem at terminal gates, which affect port efficiency and generate serious air pollution. To solve this congestion problem, we propose a solution of managing truck arrivals with time windows based on the truck-vessel service relationship, specifically trucks delivering containers for the same vessel share one common time window. Time windows can be optimized with different strategies. In this paper, we first propose a framework for installing this solution in a terminal system, and second develop an optimization model for scaling time windows with three alternative strategies: namely fixed ending-point strategy (FEP), variable end-point strategy and greedy algorithm strategy. Third, to compare the strategies in terms of effectiveness, numerical experiments are conducted based on real data. The result shows that (1) good planning coordination is essential for the proposed method; and (2) FEP is found to be a better strategy than the other two.
This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, one of the common options for complying with these limits is to burn heavy fuel oil (HFO) outside the ECA and switch to low-sulfur fuel such as marine gas oil (MGO) inside the ECA. As the prices of these two fuels are generally very different, so may be the speeds that the ship will sail at outside and inside the ECA. The first optimization problem examined by the paper considers an extension of the model of Ronen (1982) in which ship speeds both inside and outside the ECA are optimized. The second problem is called the ECA refraction problem, due to its conceptual similarity with the refraction problem when light travels across two different media, and also involves optimizing the point at which the ship crosses the ECA boundary. In both cases the objective of the problem is to maximize daily profit. In addition to mathematical formulations, examples and sensitivity analyses are presented for both problems.