As the emission legislation becomes further constraining, all manufacturers started to fulfill the future regulations about the prime movers in the market. Lean-burn gas engines operating under marine applications are also obligated to enhance the performance with a low emission level. Lean-burn gas engines are expressed as a cleaner source of power in steady loading than diesel engines, while in transient conditions of sea state, the unsteadiness compels the engine to respond differently than in the steady-state. This response leads to higher fuel consumption and an increase in emission formation. In order to improve the stability of the engine in transient conditions, this study presents a concept implementing a hybrid configuration in the propulsion system. An engine model is developed and validated in a range of load and speed by comparing it with the available measured data. The imposed torque into the developed engine model is smoothed out by implementing the hybrid concept, and its influence on emission reduction is discussed. It is shown that with the hybrid propulsion system, the NOX reduces up to 40% because of the maximum load reduction. Moreover, eliminating the low load operation by a Power Take In during incomplete propeller immersion, the methane slip declines significantly due to combustion efficiency enhancement.
The activities and emissions from leisure boats in the Baltic Sea have been modeled in a comprehensive approach for the first time, using a new simulation model leisure Boat Emissions and Activities siMulator (BEAM). The model utilizes survey data to characterize the national leisure boat fleets. Leisure boats have been categorized based on their size, use and engine specifications, and for these subcategories emission factors for NOx, PM2.5, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and releases of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from antifouling paints have been estimated according to literature values. The modeling approach also considers the temporal and spatial distribution of leisure boat activities, which are applied to each simulated leisure boat separately. According to our results the CO and NMVOC emissions from leisure boats, as well as Cu and Zn released from antifouling paints, are significant when compared against the emissions originating from registered commercial shipping in the Baltic Sea. CO emissions equal 70 % of the registered shipping emissions and NMVOC emissions equal 160 % when compared against the modeled results in the Baltic Sea in 2014. Modeled NOx and PM2.5 from the leisure boats are less significant compared to the registered shipping emissions. The emissions from leisure boats are concentrated in the summer months of June, July and August and are released in the vicinity of inhabited coastal areas. Given the large emission estimates for leisure boats, this commonly overlooked source of emissions should be further investigated in greater detail.
This paper presents a detailed BC, NOx and SO2 emission inventory for ships in the Arctic in 2012 based on satellite AIS data, ship engine power functions and technology stratified emission factors. Emission projections are presented for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050. Furthermore, the BC, SO2 and O3 concentrations and the deposition of BC are calculated for 2012 and for two arctic shipping scenarios – with or without arctic diversion routes due to a possible polar sea ice extent in the future.
In 2012, the largest shares of Arctic ships emissions are calculated for fishing ships (45% for BC, 38% for NOx, 23% for SO2) followed by passenger ships (20%, 17%, 25%), tankers (9%, 13%, 15%), general cargo (8%, 11%, 12%) and container ships (5%, 7%, 8%). In 2050, without arctic diversion routes, the total emissions of BC, NOx and SO2 are expected to change by +16%, −32% and −63%, respectively, compared to 2012. The results for fishing ships are the least certain, caused by a less precise engine power – sailing speed relation.
The calculated BC, SO2, and O3 surface concentrations and BC deposition contributions from ships are low as a mean for the whole Arctic in 2012, but locally BC additional contributions reach up to 20% around Iceland, and high additional contributions (100–300%) are calculated in some sea areas for SO2. In 2050, the arctic diversion routes highly influence the calculated surface concentrations and the deposition of BC in the Arctic. During summertime navigation contributions become very visible for BC (>80%) and SO2 (>1000%) along the arctic diversion routes, while the O3 (>10%) and BC deposition (>5%) additional contributions, respectively, get highest over the ocean east of Greenland and in the High Arctic.
The geospatial ship type specific emission results presented in this paper have increased the accuracy of the emission inventories for ships in the Arctic. The methodology can be used to estimate shipping emissions in other regions of the world, and hence may serve as an input for other researchers and policy makers working in this field.
This study concerns nitrogen based emissions from a hydrogen enriched ammonia fueled SI engine. These emissions deserve special attention as their formation may differ from conventional HC combustion due to the nitrogen content in the fuel. A range of experiments are conducted with a single cylinder 0.612 l CFR engine with a compression ratio varying from 7 to 15 using a fuel composition of 80 vol% NH3 and 20 vol% H2. Wet exhaust samples are analysed with an FT-IR. Emission measurements reveal that nitric oxide stem from other reaction paths than the dissociation of molecular nitrogen. This causes the NO emissions to peak around 35% rather than 10% excess air, as is typical in HC fueled SI-engines. However the magnitude of NO emissions are comparable to that of measurements conducted with gasoline due to lower flame temperatures. Nitrogen dioxide levels are higher when comparing with gasoline, but has a relatively low share of the total NOx emissions (3–4%). Nitrous oxide is a product of NH2 reacting with NO2 and NH reacting with NO. The magnitude is largely affected by ignition timing due to the temperature development during expansion and the amount of excess air, as increased oxygen availability stimulates the formation of the NH2 radical and the levels of NO2 are higher. Under ideal operating conditions (MBT ignition timing) N2O levels are very low. The dominating contributors to unburned ammonia are chamber crevices as the magnitude of these emissions is greatly affected by the compression ratio. However, levels are lower than required in order to eliminate all NOx emissions with a SCR catalyst.