The paper presents a comprehensive review of the current status of integrated high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) and methanol steam reformer (MSR) systems. It highlights the advantages and limitations of the technology and outlines key areas for future improvement. A thorough discussion of novel reformer designs and optimizations aimed at improving the performance of the reformer, as well as different integrated MSR-HT-PEMFC system configurations are provided. The control strategies of the system operation and system diagnosis are also addressed, offering a complete picture of the integrated system design. The review revealed that several processes and components of the system should be improved to facilitate large-scale implementation of the MSR-HT-PEMFC systems. The lengthy system startup is one area that requires improvements. A structural design that is more compact without sacrificing performance is also required, which could possibly be achieved by recovering water from the fuel cell to fulfill MSR's water needs and consequently shrink the fuel tank. Reformer design should account for both heat transfer optimizations and reduced pressure drop to enhance the system's performance. Finally, research must concentrate on membrane materials for HT-PEMFC that can operate in the 200–300 °C temperature range and catalyst materials for more efficient MSR process at lower temperature should be investigated to improve the heat integration and overall system efficiency.
Several replacement fuel to today’s fossil based ship propulsion fuels have been addressed in MarEfuel. Key ones are; pyrolysis oil (blend in fuel), methanol and ammonia. These were singled out among many possible fuels from a preliminary analysis that indicated that they could play a key role in fulfilling the emission targets set politically and by the sector in the most cost effective manner. In the following they shall be treated in turn in some detail. Costs of several “blue” fuels have also been assessed. The projected costs are used in other parts of the MarEfuel project (e.g. for assessing the total cost of ownership).
This report provides an assessment on the prospects for offshore energy hubs. Four use cases have been developed and evaluated by respondents in a survey instrument for their forecasted time horizon to implementation and their business potential as opportunities for the maritime and offshore
industries. The report is produced by the PERISCOPE Group at Aarhus University for the PERISCOPE network.