Keyword: Machine learning


Identifying Key Issues in Integration of Autonomous Ships in Container Ports: A Machine-Learning-Based Systematic Literature Review

Enna Hirata, Annette Skovsted Hansen

Background: Autonomous ships have the potential to increase operational efficiency and reduce carbon footprints through technology and innovation. However, there is no comprehensive literature review of all the different types of papers related to autonomous ships, especially with regard to their integration with ports. This paper takes a systematic review approach to extract and summarize the main topics related to autonomous ships in the fields of container shipping and port management. Methods: A machine learning method is used to extract the main topics from more than 2000 journal publications indexed in WoS and Scopus. Results: The research findings highlight key issues related to technology, cybersecurity, data governance, regulations, and legal frameworks, providing a different perspective compared to human manual reviews of papers. Conclusions: Our search results confirm several recommendations. First, from a technological perspective, it is advised to increase support for the research and development of autonomous underwater vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles, establish safety standards, mandate testing of wave model evaluation systems, and promote international standardization. Second, from a cyber–physical systems perspective, efforts should be made to strengthen logistics and supply chains for autonomous ships, establish data governance protocols, enforce strict control over IoT device data, and strengthen cybersecurity measures. Third, from an environmental perspective, measures should be implemented to address the environmental impact of autonomous ships. This can be achieved by promoting international agreements from a global societal standpoint and clarifying the legal framework regarding liability in the event of accidents.

MDPI / 2024
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Data-driven condition monitoring of two-stroke marine diesel engine piston rings with machine learning

Ioannis Asimakopoulos, Luis David Avendaño-Valencia, Marie Lützen, Niels Gorm Maly Rytter

Maintaining the condition of a vessel and its equipment guarantees the scheduled completion of voyages and the safety of the crew.

This paper presents condition monitoring techniques for early detection of faults related to piston rings in remote cylinders of two-stroke marine diesel engines. Operational sensor data from the main engine of a container ship are provided by a shipping company.

A graphical approach complimented by correlation heatmaps and feature importance from gradient boosting trees are used for feature selection. Support Vector Machine, Random Forest and Extreme Gradient Boosting Trees are tested for residual generation from the nominal behavior.

The residual time series gives a good indication of the degradation of the system and can be used for alarm raising under strict rules. It is proven that the proposed method could alert the engine crew of a change in the condition of the piston rings much earlier than existing methods.

Ships and Offshore Structures / 2023
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Deriving spatial wave data from a network of buoys and ships

Raphaël E.G. Mounet*, Jiaxin Chen, Ulrik D. Nielsen, Astrid H. Brodtkorb, Ajit C. Pillai, Ian G.C. Ashton, Edward C.C. Steele

The real-time provision of high-quality estimates of the ocean wave parameters at appropriate spatial resolutions are essential for the sustainable operations of marine structures. Machine learning affords considerable opportunity for providing additional value from sensor networks, fusing metocean data collected by various platforms. Exploiting the ship-as-a-wave-buoy concept, this article proposes the integration of vessel-based observations into a wave-nowcasting framework. Surrogate models are trained using a high-fidelity physics-based nearshore wave model to learn the spatial correlations between grid points within a computational domain. The performance of these different models are evaluated in a case study to assess how well wave parameters estimated through the spectral analysis of ship motions can perform as inputs to the surrogate system, to replace or complement traditional wave buoy measurements. The benchmark study identifies the advantages and limitations inherent in the methodology incorporating ship-based wave estimates to improve the reliability and availability of regional sea state information.

Ocean Engineering / 2023
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Machine Learning Enhancement of Manoeuvring Prediction for Ship Digital Twin using Full-scale Recordings

Rasmus Esbjørn Nielsen, Dimitrios Papageorgiou, Lazaros Nalpantidis, Bugge T. Jensen, Mogens Blanke

Digital Twins have much attention in the shipping industry, attempting to support all phases of a vessel’s life cycle. With several tools appearing in Digital Twin software suites, high-quality manoeuvring and performance prediction remain cornerstones. Propulsion efficiency is in focus while in service. Simulator-based training is in focus to ensure safety of manoeuvring in confined waters and harbours. Prediction of ships’ velocity and turn rate are essential for correct look and feel during training, but phenomena like dynamic inflow to propellers, bank and shallow water effects limit simulators’ accuracy, and master mariners often comment that simulations could be in better agreement with actual behaviours of their vessel. This paper focuses on digital twin enhancements to better match reality. Using data logged during in-service operation, we first consider a system identification perspective, employing a first-principles model structure. Showing that a complete firstprinciples model is not identifiable under the excitation met in service, we employ a Recurrent Neural Network to predict deviations between measured velocities and the model output. The outcome is a hybrid of a first-principles model with a machine learning generic approximator add-on. The paper demonstrates significant improvements in prediction accuracy of both in-harbour manoeuvring and shallow water passage conditions.

Ocean Engineering / 2022
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