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Keyword: HFO

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Modelling of temporal and spatial evolution of sulphur oxides and sulphuric acid under large, two-stroke marine engine-like conditions using integrated CFD-chemical kinetics

Pang, Kar Mun; Karvounis, Nikolas; Walther, Jens Honore; Schramm, Jesper; Glarborg, Peter; Mayer, Stefan

In this work, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies of sulphur oxides (SOx) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) formation processes in a large, low speed two-stroke marine diesel engine are carried out. The current numerical study aims to investigate the conversion of sulphuric dioxide (SO2) to sulphuric trioxide (SO3) and the possibility of H2SO4 condensation which are the prerequisites to better understand the corrosion-induced wear phenomenon. This is achieved with the aid of the implementation of a multicomponent surrogate model, which comprises a skeletal n-heptane mechanism and a reduced sulphur subset mechanism. In the present work, performance of the coupled CFD-chemical kinetic model is evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The modelling results show that the temporal and spatial evolutions of SOx predicted by the skeletal model are similar to those by the base mechanism. Predictions of the variations of SOx and the associated SO2 to SO3 conversion in response to the change of fuel sulphur content, swirl velocity, start of injection, scavenge pressure and humidity qualitatively agree with numerical and experimental results from the literature. The model is further evaluated using the measured SO2 to SO3 conversion levels in a low load, low scavenge pressure case and a low load, high scavenge pressure case. The absolute values of simulated and measured conversion levels are close, although the former appear to be higher. The current results show that the flame impinges at the cylinder liner near top dead centre. The gas is cooled rapidly by the wall temperature and H2SO4 is produced in the region where the local temperature is less than 600 K. Based on the flue gas correlation, the acid dew point temperature is higher than the wall temperature, suggesting that acid condensation may begin early at the top part of the cylinder liner. The predicted distribution corresponds well with the distribution of corroded parts observed in service engines. The model is expected to serve as an important tool to simulate the rates of SO2 absorption into lubricating oil film and H2SO4 condensation in this combustion system.

Applied Energy, Volume 193 / 2017
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Maritime shipping and emissions: A three-layered, damage-based approach

Lindstad, Elizabeth; Eskeland, Gunnar; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Sandaas, Inge; Hammer Strømman, Anders

Policy emphasis in ship design must be shifted away from global and idealized towards regional based and realistic vessel operating conditions. The present approach to reducing shipping emissions through technical standards tends to neglect how damages and abatement opportunities vary according to location and operational conditions. Since environmental policy originates in damages relating to ecosystems and jurisdictions, a three-layered approach to vessel emissions is intuitive and practical. Here, we suggest associating damages and policies with ports, coastal areas possibly defined as Emission Control Areas (ECA) as in the North Sea and the Baltic, and open seas globally. This approach offers important practical opportunities: in ports, clean fuels or even electrification is possible; in ECAs, cleaner fuels and penalties for damaging fuels are important, but so is vessel handling, such as speeds and utilization. Globally we argue that it may be desirable to allow burning very dirty fuels at high seas, due to the cost advantages, the climate cooling benefits, and the limited ecosystem impacts. We quantify the benefits and cost savings from reforming current IMO and other approaches towards environmental management with a three-layered approach, and argue it is feasible and worth considering.

Ocean Engineering, Volume 110, Part B, / 2015
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On two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of emission control areas

Fagerholt, Kjetil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, one of the common options for complying with these limits is to burn heavy fuel oil (HFO) outside the ECA and switch to low-sulfur fuel such as marine gas oil (MGO) inside the ECA. As the prices of these two fuels are generally very different, so may be the speeds that the ship will sail at outside and inside the ECA. The first optimization problem examined by the paper considers an extension of the model of Ronen (1982) in which ship speeds both inside and outside the ECA are optimized. The second problem is called the ECA refraction problem, due to its conceptual similarity with the refraction problem when light travels across two different media, and also involves optimizing the point at which the ship crosses the ECA boundary. In both cases the objective of the problem is to maximize daily profit. In addition to mathematical formulations, examples and sensitivity analyses are presented for both problems.

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 39 / 2015
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