Knowledge

Keyword: decarbonization

paper

Optimal Deck Position of Rotor Sails and DynaRigs for a Bulk Carrier Retrofit Installation

Martina Reche Vilanova, Harry B. Bingham, Manuel Fluck, Dale Morris, Harilaos N. Psaraftis

This scientific study aims to compare the significance of onboard positioning of two different classes of wind propulsion systems for retrofit installations to maximize fuel and emissions savings. The study focuses on comparing the performance a low lift-to-drag ratio wind propulsion system, the Rotor Sail, and a high lift-to-drag ratio one, the DynaRig, installed at different places on a real 84000 DWT bulk carrier ship to identify the most efficient placement of these two distinct systems to achieve maximum fuel efficiency. The investigation involves a comprehensive analysis of available deck spaces, and performance prediction program modeling is employed to estimate potential fuel savings for a typical route followed by the vessel. The results show that placing the WPS far forward, close to the hydrodynamic centre of lateral resistance, results in overall higher savings. Both WPS classes see a penalty when placed far from the hydrodynamic centre of lateral resistance, reducing their overall savings potential. However, Rotor Sails are more adversely affected due to their enhanced side force generation per unit thrust. Consequently, the placement of Rotor Sails becomes crucial, especially under upwind conditions, while DynaRigs prove more versatile for installations in the aft. This research provides valuable insights into enhancing the ship's energy efficiency and reducing its environmental impact in the maritime industry.

Sustainability in Ship Design and Operations Conference 2023 - New York, United States / 2023
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paper

Operational cycles for maritime transportation: A benchmarking tool for ship energy efficiency

Amandine Godet, Jacob Normann Nurup, Jonas Thoustrup Saber, George Panagakos, Michael Bruhn Barfod

Benchmarking the energy efficiency of ships is not a straightforward task, mainly due to the diversity of operations. Although driving cycles have been used for decades in evaluating the performance of road vehicles, these do not exist in formal policy-making for maritime transport. This work builds on a previously proposed methodology. It uses noon reports of 327 vessels for 2019 to construct operational cycles for seven size classes of container ships using the main engine power as the main parameter. Concerning the main engine emissions, the resulting cycles reduce variation in the carbon intensity indicator values by more than 30% while maintaining an average accuracy of 97.7% in absolute emissions. These figures show that the concept can improve operational carbon intensity indicators in terms of robustness and their technical counterparts in optimizing ship design. The paper also proposes further work required for benchmarking applications in policy-making.

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment / 2023
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paper

Implications of the Emission-Related Policy Environment on Existing Containerships

M. Schroer, G. Panagakos, M. Bruhn Barfod

Global warming and, correspondingly, reducing CO2 emissions is one of the most challenging tasks the world faces today. The maritime industry contributed to 2.89% of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. To decrease this share, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) defined, among others, the goal to reduce the carbon intensity of international shipping by 40% until 2030. In this context, the short-term measures recently adopted, in the form of a technical standard (Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index, EEXI) and a rating scheme based on an operational indicator (Carbon Intensity Indicator, CII), mark a crucial step to achieving the mentioned goal. In addition, the EU Commission has recently introduced the FuelEU Maritime Initiative limiting the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of a ship’s energy use incorporating a reduction occurring in a five-year rhythm between 2025 and 2050. The paper investigates the practical options availed to existing containerships of different sizes and technological vintages for meeting the specific EEXI, CII, and GHG intensity reduction requirements imposed by the regulations. The investigation will be based on the actual technical and operational profiles of six sample ships and will consider a set of possible compliance options including, but not limited to, engine power limitation, waste heat recovery system, variable frequency drives, and virtual arrival. The data used originates from noon reports of existing containerships provided by a European industry leader. The ship-specific CO2 emission reduction potentials required for the impact assessment result from either literature or actual data-based calculations. Financial data is used for investigating the economic impact of the reduction requirements. Conclusions drawn include an operational advantage that pre-EEDI ships enjoy when applying engine power limitation (EPL) for EEXI compliance, the occurrence of payback periods exceeding ship lifetimes, and an estimate of the effect that onshore power supply can have on complying with the FuelEU Maritime Initiative.

7th World Maritime Technology Conference 2022 - Tivoli Congress Center, Copenhagen, Denmark / 2022
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paper

Implications of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) on European container routes: A carbon leakage case study

Sotiria Lagouvardou*, Harilaos N. Psaraftis

The paper focuses on the impacts of the inclusion of the maritime sector in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS). The enforcement of a regional Market-Based Measure (MBM) such as the EU ETS may provide financial incentives to shipping operators to reconfigure their networks and avoid voyages inside the European Economic Area (EEA). This paper investigates the risk of container vessels engaging in evasive port calls by replacing EEA transshipment hubs with nearby non-EEA competitors. We perform a cost-benefit analysis that calculates the cost of EU Allowances (EUAs) for several international services and compares it with a relocation scenario. Our case studies focus on the Piraeus-Izmir and the Algeciras-Tanger Med scenarios and identify the EU carbon price turning point that will render the switch of the transshipment hubs a cost-effective choice for the operator. The results show that the preference of a non-EEA hub will become attractive for carbon prices well below 25 EUR per metric ton of CO2. Further, in all cases, the hub switch results in a rise in the overall carbon emissions attributed to the service which amplifies the risk of carbon leakage. Our results show that the relocation would lead to revenue loss for the EU ETS and penalization of the EEA transshipment hubs in close proximity with hubs outside the EEA, thus posing a threat to their economic activity and development.

Maritime Transport Research / 2022
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paper

Shipping decarbonization and green ports

Harilaos N. Psaraftis*, Thalis Zis

The “Initial IMO Strategy” was adopted in the 72nd session of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 72) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in April 2018. It has set, among other things, ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships, and purports to express a strong political will to phase them out as soon as possible. The most ambitious of these targets is to reduce GHG emissions by 2050 at least 50% vis-à-vis 2008 levels, and there is also an intermediate target to reduce CO2 emissions per transport work by 2030 at least 40%, again vis-à-vis 2008 levels (IMO, 2018). In the period after MEPC 72, the focus of the IMO discussion has been on the formulation and eventual adoption of the short-term measures, that is, measures that are to be agreed upon and implemented by 2023. In fact, MEPC 76, held in June 2021, and after a rather difficult discussion, adopted such a short-term measure. MEPC 77 (November 2021) saw the initiation of the discussion on mid-term and long-term measures, which include, among others, market based measures (MBMs) and alternative fuels. The discussion continued at MEPC 78 (June 2022) and is expected to continue at future meetings of MEPC.

Maritime Transport Research / 2022
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report

MarE-Fuel: ROADMAP for sustainable maritime fuels

Sebastian Marco Franz, Sara Shapiro-Bengtsen, Nicolas Jean Bernard Campion, Martijn Backer, Marie Münster

This report is a background report to the MarE-Fuel project financed by the Maritime Fund and the Lauritzen Fund. Partners of the project has been DTU, Anker Invest, Mærsk Line, Copenhagen Economics, OMT and DFDS. In the report, potential decarbonization roadmaps or pathways for the maritime industry are presented, as well as the methodology of deriving them. Different future fuels and their emissions are highlighted. In addition, biomass availability plays an essential role in climate mitigation efforts towards net-zero by 2050, and thus we examined different biomass availability scenarios alongside greenhouse-gas emissions cap scenarios. The assumptions related to the underlying emissions can be found in the first chapter of the report. Besides the underlying emissions for a decarbonized maritime industry, the ship stock and the underlying transport demand play an essential role for a future decarbonized maritime industry. In the second chapter of the report, we address this issue by explaining how ship stock and shipping demand have been incorporated into the model. Finally, we present the optimization ship stock model developed to generate roadmap scenarios. We show the objective function and the underlying constraints of the model. The results of this work are presented and discussed. We also show some sensitivity analysis, which will shed light on the relevant parameters for the futureof the maritime industry. Our main findings can be found in the end of the report.

Technical University of Denmark / 2021
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paper

A comparative evaluation of market based measures for shipping decarbonization

Harilaos N. Psaraftis*, Thalis Zis, Sotiria Lagouvardou

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and discussion of potential Market Based Measures (MBMs) under the Initial IMO Strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. In this context, some related developments are also seen as directly relevant, mainly in the context of the possible inclusion of shipping into the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS). A comparative evaluation of maritime MBMs is made using the following criteria: GHG reduction effectiveness, compatibility with existing legal framework, potential implementation timeline, potential impacts on States, administrative burden, practical feasibility, avoidance of split incentives between ship-owner and charterer, and commercial impacts. The paper breaks down potential MBMs into the following classes: Bunker levy/carbon levy MBMs, ETS (global and/or EU ETS) MBMs and other MBM proposals.

Maritime Transport Research / 2021
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Is shipping decarbonization possible – A RoPax case study

Harilaos Psaraftis

In this video, Professor Harilaos Psaraftis (DTU Technical University of Denmark) will outline the main decarbonization challenges.

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the so-called Initial IMO Strategy in 2018, stipulating that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping need to be reduced by at least 50% by 2050, and CO2 emissions per transport work are to be reduced by at least 40% by the year 2030, both compared to the 2008 levels.

At the same time, there is an elephant in the room: It is the intent of the European Commission and the European Parliament to include shipping into the EU ETS. How the elephant will be handled is not clear. In this talk we will outline the main decarbonization challenges through a focus on a RoPax case study.
The session was developed in collaboration with MARLOG.

March / 2021
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paper

Shipping decarbonization in the aftermath of MEPC 76

Harilaos N. Psaraftis

The purpose of this short paper is to provide a brief and non‐encyclopedic commentary on the decisions made at IMO MEPC 76 (June 2021) and assess the prospects for the future of shipping decarbonization in the aftermath of that meeting. The recent action of the European Commission to include shipping into the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) is also discussed.

Cleaner Logistics and Supply Chain / 2021
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paper

Decarbonization of Maritime Transport: Is There Light at the End of the Tunnel?

Harilaos N. Psaraftis*, Christos A. Kontovas

The purpose of this paper is to assess the status and prospects of the decarbonization of maritime transport. Already more than two years have passed since the landmark decision of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in April 2018, which entailed ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. The paper attempts to address the following three questions: (a) where do we stand with respect to GHG emissions from ships, (b) how is the Initial IMO Strategy progressing, and (c) what should be done to move ahead? To that effect, our methodology includes commenting on some of the key issues addressed by the recently released 4th IMO GHG study, assessing progress at the IMO since 2018, and finally identifying other issues that we consider relevant and important as regards maritime GHG emissions, such as for instance the role of the European Green Deal and how this may interact with the IMO process. Even though the approach of the paper is to a significant extent qualitative, some key quantitative and modelling aspects are considered as well. On the basis of our analysis, our main conjecture is that there is not yet light at the end of the tunnel with respect to decarbonizing maritime transport.

Sustainability / 2020
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