Keyword: Decarbonise


Impacts of short-term measures to decarbonize maritime transport on perishable cargoes

Thalis P. Zis, Harilaos N. Psaraftis

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted a strategy to reduce emissions from international shipping that sets very ambitious targets. The first set of actions, so-called short-term measures, are expected to be implemented by 2023 and result in a reduction of emission intensity by at least 40% by 2030 compared with 2008 levels. Compliance may be achieved through a reduction in sailing speeds, but certain countries have raised concerns on the ramifications of longer transit times on their exports, particularly for perishable products. In this paper, we present a methodology to assess the impacts of various short-term measures on perishable products. We use an extension of a nested modal split model to examine shifts towards other modes of transport. We demonstrate our methodology with a transpacific case study carrying perishable products from South America to China. We compare the short-term measures currently under discussion, in one of the first academic studies to explore these issues. These include a speed limit approach, a power limit, and a goal-based measure. Our results show that a power limit or a goal-based measure would offer some advantages to liner shipping operators using more efficient vessels, unlike a speed limit. Using 2008 as the benchmark year has resulted in small speed reductions required by the liner shipping sector to reach its targets. For perishable cargoes, small speed reductions can be tolerated by the shippers without significant modal shift. Choosing the right short-term strategy is of utmost importance to promote clean shipping practices in the following years.

Maritime Economics & Logistics / 2021
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Nuclear propulsion in ocean merchant shipping: The role of historical experiments to gain insight into possible future applications

Schøyen, Halvor; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

Global marine shipping annually accounts for about one billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear power propulsion may be an option to de-carbonise some niches of the merchant ocean fleet. This paper considers the three experimental nuclear-powered merchant ships launched and operated in the world so far; the iconic Savannah (USA), Otto Hahn (West Germany) and Mutsu (Japan). They were independently developed and operated in the 1960s and 1970s for technology demonstration and learning. A fourth ship, Sevmorput (Soviet Union/Russia, 1988–to date), is a pioneer in respect of its logistics functions and propulsion system. This paper develops a theoretical framework for the sustainability assessment of nuclear propulsion in ocean merchant shipping and presents a method for exploring nuclear propulsion, relative to flag state, ports, shipping resources and ocean transport services. The experimental ships’ transport efficiency is discussed and related to contemporary oil-fired shipping of general cargo, and to recent literature presenting possible future applications of merchant nuclear propulsion in some market niches. Insights provided include: (1) the experiments demonstrate that merchant nuclear propulsion may be technically feasible; (2) port and canal access for merchant nuclear-powered ships may be difficult and restricted; (3) the up-front costs, refuelling and end-of-life decommissioning costs of nuclear-powered ships are vast and uncertain against conventionally-powered ships; (4) because nuclear fuel is comparatively low-cost, the conventional oil-fired ship cost implications of high-speed operations do not apply.

Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 169 (2017) / 2017
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