Knowledge

Keyword: cold ironing

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Energy Management and Operation Optimization of Seaport Microgrids

Nur Najihah Binti Abu Bakar

The emissions of the maritime sector caused by ship transportation and other fossil fuel sources pose a threat to the environment and human health. It drives an increasing interest in adopting electrification solutions to revolutionize the conventional maritime energy-intensive and highly polluting industry. Accordingly, this thesis is one of the pioneering attempts to implement a seaport microgrid and carbon capture shore power system of cold ironing at a port dedicated to sustainability while remaining competitive.
However, the technological and research gaps of the conventional port scheduling paradigm constitute challenges in a synergy between the two prominent maritime electrification systems of seaport microgrids and cold ironing. The incorporation of cold ironing into seaport operations introduces new challenges to handling workflow and the potential impact of such integration has not yet been quantitatively addressed. Developing strategic management to improve port performance is always an issue for the port operators. This research gap motivated this study to develop an integrated operation and energy management framework by executing forecasting and optimization techniques for coordinating these technologies toward the emission neutrality goal.
This thesis begins with an extensive review of the significant aspects of cold ironing technology and seaport microgrids. A range of factors associated with the varying demand for cold ironing in seaport microgrids, requiring advanced forecasting techniques, are described in Chapter 2. Another challenge is that the integration of cold ironing with limited capacities increases the complexity of the existing seaside operation at port namely the berth allocation problem (BAP) and quay crane allocation problem (QCAP). It prolongs the waiting time for the ships to be served at berth. Thus, a seaside operational optimization model is developed in Chapter 3 to cooperatively schedule BAP, QCAP, and cold ironing assignment problems (CIAP). Chapter 4 integrates bilevel optimization as an energy management system (EMS) framework to coordinate the joint cold ironing with the seaport microgrid concept, providing more flexibility in energy scheduling while remaining cost-effective. Finally, Chapter 5 presents the overall conclusions of the thesis, research contribution, and future recommendations.

Aalborg University Open Publishing / 2024
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paper

Two-stage energy management framework of the cold ironing cooperative with renewable energy for ferry

Nur Najihah Binti Abu Bakar, Josep M. Guerrero, Juan C. Vasquez, Tayfun Uyanik, Yasin Arslanoğlu

The cold ironing system is gaining interest as a promising approach to reduce emissions from ship transportation at ports, enabling further reductions with clean energy sources coordination. While cold ironing has predominantly been applied to long-staying vessels like cruise ships and containers, feasibility studies for short-berthing ships such as ferries are limited. However, the growing demand for short-distance logistics and passenger transfers highlights the need to tackle emissions issues from ferry transportation. Incorporating electrification technology together with integrated energy management systems can significantly reduce emissions from ferry operations. Accordingly, this paper proposes a cooperative cold ironing system integrated with clean energy sources for ferry terminals. A two-stage energy management strategy combining sizing and scheduling optimization is employed to reduce the port's emissions while minimizing system and operational costs. The proposed system configuration, determined through the sizing method, yields the lowest net present cost of $9.04 M. The applied energy management strategy managed to reduce operational costs by up to 63.402 %, while significantly decreasing emissions from both shipside and shoreside operations. From the shipside, emissions reductions of 38.44 % for CO2, 97.7 % for NOX, 96.69 % for SO2, and 92.1 % for PM were achieved. From the shoreside, the approach led to a 28 % reduction across all emission types. Thus, implementing cold ironing powered by clean energy sources is a viable solution for reducing emissions generated by ferry operations. The proposed energy management approach enables emissions reduction and delivering cost-effectiveness at ferry terminals.

Energy Conversion and Management / 2024
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book

Green Ports

Zis, Thalis

Sustainable shipping involves not only ships but ports as their extension. This chapter examines the issues associated with a green port operation. These include technologies such as cold ironing; market-based practices such as differentiated fairway dues, speed reduction, and noise and dust abatement; and others. The legislative framework in various countries is explained, and various environmental scorecards are discussed. This chapter starts with a brief review on recent academic research in the field of environmental management of ports and presents the status quo in leading ports around the world. The chapter emphasizes on the implementation of speed reduction programmes near the port, the use of cold ironing at berth, and the effects of fuel quality regulation, considering the perspectives of the port authority and the ship operator. The emerging environmental and economic trade-offs are discussed. The aim of this chapter is to be a starting point for researchers seeking to work on green ports. Insights of this chapter may also be useful for stakeholders seeking to select the best emissions reduction option depending on their unique characteristics.

Book chapter in H. N. Psaraftis (Ed.), Sustainable Shipping: A Cross-Disciplinary View / 2019
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Prospects of cold ironing as an emissions reduction option

Zis, Thalis

Cold ironing is the process of providing shorepower to cover the energy demands of ships calling at ports. This technological solution can eliminate the emissions of auxiliary engines at berth, resulting in a global reduction of emissions if the grid powering the ships is an environmentally friendly energy source. This paper conducts a literature review of recent academic work in the field and presents the status of this technology worldwide and the current barriers for its further implementation. The use of cold ironing is mandatory in Californian ports for ship operators and as a result terminal and ship operators were required to invest in this technology. In Europe, all ports will be required to have cold ironing provision by the end of 2025. Other regulations that target local emissions such as Emission Control Areas can have a significant impact on whether cold ironing is used in the future as a potential compliance solution. This paper constructs a quantitative framework for the examination of the technology considering all stakeholders. The role of regulation is shown to be critical for the further adoption of this technology. Illustrative case studies are presented that consider the perspective of ship operators of various ship types, and terminal operators that opt to invest in shorepower facilities. The results of the case studies show that for medium and high fuel price scenarios there is economic motivation for ship operators to use cold ironing. For the port, the cost per abated ton of pollutants is much lower than current estimates of the external costs of pollutants. Therefore, shorepower may be a viable emissions reduction option for the maritime sector, provided that regulatory bodies assist the further adoption of the technology from ship operators and ports. The methodology can be useful to port and ship operators in examining the benefits of using cold ironing as an emissions reduction action.

Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 119 / 2019
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paper

Evaluation of cold ironing and speed reduction policies to reduce ship emissions near and at ports

Zis, Thalis; North, Robin Jacob; Angeloudis, Panagiotis; Ochieng, Washington Yotto; Bell, Michael Geoffrey Harrison

Different port operating policies have the potential to reduce emissions from shipping; however, their efficacy varies for different ports. This article extends existing literature to present a consistent and transferable methodology that examines emissions reduction port policies based on ship-call data. Carbon dioxide (CO2); sulphur dioxide (SO2); nitrogen oxides (NOx); and black carbon (BC) emissions from near-port containership activities are estimated. Two emissions reduction policies are considered for typical container terminals. Participation of all calling vessels with a speed reduction scheme can lead to reductions of 8–20 per cent, 9–40 per cent and 9–17 per cent for CO2, SO2 and NOx, respectively. However, speed reduction policies may increase BC emissions by up to 10 per cent. Provision of Alternative Marine Power (AMP) for all berthing vessels can reduce in-port emissions by 48–70 per cent, 3–60 per cent, 40–60 per cent and 57–70 per cent for CO2, SO2, NOx and BC, respectively. The analysis shows that emissions depend on visiting fleet, berthing durations, baseline operating pattern of calling ships, sulphur reduction policies in force and the emissions intensity of electricity supply. The potential of emissions reduction policies varies considerably across ports making imperative the evaluation and prioritization of such policies based on the unique characteristics of each port and each vessel.

Maritime Economics & Logistics, volume 16 / 2014
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